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Psychopathological Symptoms and Gaming Motives in Disordered Gaming—A Psychometric Comparison between the WHO and APA Diagnostic Frameworks
Open AccessArticle

Laxer Clinical Criteria for Gaming Disorder May Hinder Future Efforts to Devise an Efficient Diagnostic Approach: A Tree-Based Model Study

1
Division of Psychology, School of Medicine, University of Tasmania, Launceston, TAS 7250, Australia
2
The International Cyberpsychology and Addictions Research Laboratory (iCARL), University of Tasmania, Launceston, TAS 7250, Australia
3
RMIT University, School of Media and Communication, 124 La Trobe St, Melbourne, VIC 3000, Australia
4
Gdansk University of Technology, Department of Marketing, Ul. Narutowicza 11/12, 80-233 Gdansk, Poland
5
Victoria University, School of Psychology, College of Health and Biomedicine, Ballarat Road, Footscray, VIC 3011, Australia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
J. Clin. Med. 2019, 8(10), 1730; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm8101730
Received: 4 September 2019 / Revised: 10 October 2019 / Accepted: 17 October 2019 / Published: 18 October 2019
Internet Gaming Disorder (IGD) has been recognized in May 2013 and can be evaluated using the criteria developed by American Psychiatric Association (APA). The present study investigated the role each IGD criteria plays in diagnosing disordered gaming. A total of 3377 participants (mean age 20 years, SD = 4.3 years) participated in the study. The data collected was scrutinized to detect patterns of IGD using Conditional Inference Tree (Ctree), a sophisticated machine algorithm. Participants provided basic sociodemographic information and completed the Internet Gaming Disorder Scale–Short-Form (IGDS9-SF). The results identified classes of IGD-related symptoms, indicating that endorsing ‘withdrawal’ and ‘loss of control’ increases the probability of disordered gaming by 77.77% while endorsement of ‘withdrawal’, ‘loss of control’ and ‘negative consequences’ increases the probability of disordered gaming by 26.66%. Moreover, lack of endorsement of ‘withdrawal’ and endorsement of ‘preoccupation’ increases the likelihood of disordered gaming by 7.14%. Taken together, the results obtained illustrate that different IGD criteria can present with different clinical weighing as unique diagnostic roles in the development of disordered gaming can be evidenced by each criterion. Moreover, the present findings help inform future revisions of diagnostic manuals and helps enhancing the assessment of IGD in the future. Additional research and clinical implications are discussed. View Full-Text
Keywords: internet gaming disorder; video games; gaming addiction; problematic gaming; behavioral addictions internet gaming disorder; video games; gaming addiction; problematic gaming; behavioral addictions
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MDPI and ACS Style

Pontes, H.M.; Schivinski, B.; Brzozowska-Woś, M.; Stavropoulos, V. Laxer Clinical Criteria for Gaming Disorder May Hinder Future Efforts to Devise an Efficient Diagnostic Approach: A Tree-Based Model Study. J. Clin. Med. 2019, 8, 1730. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm8101730

AMA Style

Pontes HM, Schivinski B, Brzozowska-Woś M, Stavropoulos V. Laxer Clinical Criteria for Gaming Disorder May Hinder Future Efforts to Devise an Efficient Diagnostic Approach: A Tree-Based Model Study. Journal of Clinical Medicine. 2019; 8(10):1730. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm8101730

Chicago/Turabian Style

Pontes, Halley M.; Schivinski, Bruno; Brzozowska-Woś, Magdalena; Stavropoulos, Vasileios. 2019. "Laxer Clinical Criteria for Gaming Disorder May Hinder Future Efforts to Devise an Efficient Diagnostic Approach: A Tree-Based Model Study" J. Clin. Med. 8, no. 10: 1730. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm8101730

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