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Article

Polyphenol-Rich Extracts from Toona sinensis Bark and Fruit Ameliorate Free Fatty Acid-Induced Lipogenesis through AMPK and LC3 Pathways

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Graduate Institute of Medicine, College of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 80708, Taiwan
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Department of Anatomy, School of Medicine, College of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 80708, Taiwan
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Department of Anatomy, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 70101, Taiwan
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Department of Urology, E-Da Hospital, Kaohsiung 82445, Taiwan
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Department of Urology, E-Da Cancer Hospital, Kaohsiung 40402, Taiwan
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Department of Anatomy, School of Medicine, China Medical University, Taichung 40401, Taiwan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
J. Clin. Med. 2019, 8(10), 1664; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm8101664
Received: 26 August 2019 / Revised: 26 September 2019 / Accepted: 3 October 2019 / Published: 11 October 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Molecular Diagnostics)
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a chronic liver disease found worldwide. The present study aimed to evaluate the mechanisms of inhibiting lipid accumulation in free fatty acid (FFA)-treated HepG2 cells caused by bark and fruit extracts of Toona sinensis (TSB and TSF). FFA induced lipid and triglyceride (TG) accumulation, which was attenuated by TSB and TSF. TSB and/or TSF promoted phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and acetyl-coA carboxylase and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha upregulation. Furthermore, TSB and TSF suppressed FFA-induced liver X receptor, sterol regulatory element-binding transcription protein 1, fatty acid synthase, and stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 protein expression. Moreover, TSB and/or TSF induced phosphorylation of Unc-51 like autophagy-activating kinase and microtubule-associated protein 1A/1B-light chain 3 expressions. Therefore, TSB and TSF relieve lipid accumulation by attenuating lipogenic protein expression, activating the AMPK pathway, and upregulating the autophagic flux to enhance lipid metabolism. Moreover, TSB and TSF reduced TG contents, implying the therapeutic use of TSB and TSF in NAFLD. View Full-Text
Keywords: Toona sinensis; lipid accumulation; lipogenesis; LC3; AMPK; HepG2 Toona sinensis; lipid accumulation; lipogenesis; LC3; AMPK; HepG2
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MDPI and ACS Style

Chen, Y.-C.; Chen, H.-J.; Huang, B.-M.; Chen, Y.-C.; Chang, C.-F. Polyphenol-Rich Extracts from Toona sinensis Bark and Fruit Ameliorate Free Fatty Acid-Induced Lipogenesis through AMPK and LC3 Pathways. J. Clin. Med. 2019, 8, 1664. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm8101664

AMA Style

Chen Y-C, Chen H-J, Huang B-M, Chen Y-C, Chang C-F. Polyphenol-Rich Extracts from Toona sinensis Bark and Fruit Ameliorate Free Fatty Acid-Induced Lipogenesis through AMPK and LC3 Pathways. Journal of Clinical Medicine. 2019; 8(10):1664. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm8101664

Chicago/Turabian Style

Chen, Yung-Chia, Hsin-Ju Chen, Bu-Miin Huang, Yu-Chi Chen, and Chi-Fen Chang. 2019. "Polyphenol-Rich Extracts from Toona sinensis Bark and Fruit Ameliorate Free Fatty Acid-Induced Lipogenesis through AMPK and LC3 Pathways" Journal of Clinical Medicine 8, no. 10: 1664. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm8101664

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