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J. Clin. Med. 2019, 8(1), 79; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm8010079

The Impact of Cholecystectomy on the Gut Microbiota: A Case-Control Study

1
Department of Internal Medicine, College of Medicine, Ewha Womans University, Seoul 07985, Korea
2
Medical Research Institute, Kangbuk Samsung Hospital, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul 03181, Korea
3
Department of Biochemistry, College of Medicine, Ewha Womans University, Seoul 07985, Korea
4
Center for Cohort Studies, Total Healthcare Center, Kangbuk Samsung Hospital, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul 03181, Korea
5
Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Kangbuk Samsung Hospital, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul 03181, Korea
6
Department of Family Medicine, Kangbuk Samsung Hospital, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul 03181, Korea
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this paper.
Received: 26 December 2018 / Revised: 6 January 2019 / Accepted: 8 January 2019 / Published: 11 January 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Gastroenterology & Hepato-Pancreato-Biliary Medicine)
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Abstract

Cholecystectomy alters the bile flow into the intestine and the enterohepatic circulation of the bile acids; this may affect the gut microbiota. We assessed the gut microbiota composition of patients who had undergone cholecystectomy and compared with those who had not. From a cohort of 1463 adult participants who underwent comprehensive health screening examinations, 27 subjects who had undergone cholecystectomy (cholecystectomy group) and 81 age- and sex-matched subjects who had not (control group) were selected. Clinical parameters were collected and compared. Microbial composition was determined by 16S rRNA gene sequencing of DNA extracted from fecal samples. We evaluated differences in the overall microbial composition and in the abundance of taxa. The two groups were comparable with respect to clinical characteristics and laboratory results. The actual number of taxa observed in a sample (observed features) was significantly lower in the cholecystectomy group than in the control group (p = 0.042). The beta diversity of Jaccard distance index was significantly different between the two groups (p = 0.027). Blautia obeum and Veillonella parvula were more abundant in the cholecystectomy group. The difference in the diversity of the gut microbiota between the cholecystectomy and control groups was subtle. However, B. obeum and V. parvula, which have azoreductase activity, were more abundant in the cholecystectomy group. The impact of such changes in the gut microbiota on health remains to be determined. View Full-Text
Keywords: cholecystectomy; microbiota; gastrointestinal microbiome; 16S rRNA cholecystectomy; microbiota; gastrointestinal microbiome; 16S rRNA
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Yoon, W.J.; Kim, H.-N.; Park, E.; Ryu, S.; Chang, Y.; Shin, H.; Kim, H.-L.; Yi, S.Y. The Impact of Cholecystectomy on the Gut Microbiota: A Case-Control Study. J. Clin. Med. 2019, 8, 79.

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