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J. Clin. Med. 2019, 8(1), 109; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm8010109

The Role of Continuous Glucose Monitoring, Diabetes Smartphone Applications, and Self-Care Behavior in Glycemic Control: Results of a Multi-National Online Survey

1
Health Sciences, University of Bremen, Grazerstrasse 2, D-28359 Bremen, Germany
2
Leibniz Institute for Prevention Research and Epidemiology—BIPS, Achterstrasse 30, D-28359 Bremen, Germany
3
Institute of Public Health, College of Medicine and Health Science, University of Gondar, Po.box-196 Gondar, Ethiopia
4
Institute of Medical Sociology, Centre for Health and Society, Medical Faculty, University of Duesseldorf, Universitätsstrasse 1, D-40225 Duesseldorf, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 19 November 2018 / Revised: 10 January 2019 / Accepted: 14 January 2019 / Published: 17 January 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Endocrinology & Metabolism)
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Abstract

Background: This study investigated the determinants (with a special emphasis on the role of diabetes app use, use of continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) device, and self-care behavior) of glycemic control of type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). Methods: A web-based survey was conducted using diabetes Facebook groups, online patient-forums, and targeted Facebook advertisements (ads). Demographic, CGM, diabetes app use, and self-care behavior data were collected. Glycemic level data were categorized into hyperglycemia, hypoglycemia, and good control. Multinomial logistic regression stratified by diabetes type was performed. Results: The survey URL was posted in 78 Facebook groups and eight online forums, and ten targeted Facebook ads were conducted yielding 1854 responses. Of those owning smartphones (n = 1753, 95%), 1052 (62.6%) had type 1 and 630 (37.4%) had type 2 DM. More than half of the type 1 respondents (n = 549, 52.2%) and one third the respondents with type 2 DM (n = 210, 33.3%) reported using diabetes apps. Increased odds of experiencing hyperglycemia were noted in persons with type 1 DM with lower educational status (Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR) = 1.7; 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 1.21–2.39); smokers (1.63, 95% CI: 1.15–2.32), and high diabetes self-management concern (AOR = 2.09, 95% CI: 1.15–2.32). CGM use (AOR = 0.66, 95% CI: 0.44–1.00); “general diet” (AOR = 0.86, 95% CI: 0.79–0.94); and “blood glucose monitoring” (AOR = 0.88, 95%CI: 0.80–0.97) self-care behavior reduced the odds of experiencing hyperglycemia. Hypoglycemia in type 1 DM was reduced by using CGM (AOR = 0.24, 95% CI: 0.09–0.60), while it was increased by experiencing a high diabetes self-management concern (AOR = 1.94, 95% CI: 1.04–3.61). Hyperglycemia in type 2 DM was increased by age (OR = 1.02, 95% CI: 1.00–1.04); high self-management concern (AOR = 2.59, 95% CI: 1.74–3.84); and poor confidence in self-management capacity (AOR = 3.22, 2.07–5.00). Conversely, diabetes app use (AOR = 0.63, 95% CI: 0.41–0.96) and “general diet” self-care (AOR = 0.84, 95% CI: 0.75–0.94), were significantly associated with the reduced odds of hyperglycemia. Conclusion: Diabetes apps, CGM, and educational interventions aimed at reducing self-management concerns and enhancing dietary self-care behavior and self-management confidence may help patients with diabetes to improve glycemic control. View Full-Text
Keywords: diabetes; CGM; self-care; glycemic control; hyperglycemia; hypoglycemia diabetes; CGM; self-care; glycemic control; hyperglycemia; hypoglycemia
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Kebede, M.M.; Schuett, C.; Pischke, C.R. The Role of Continuous Glucose Monitoring, Diabetes Smartphone Applications, and Self-Care Behavior in Glycemic Control: Results of a Multi-National Online Survey. J. Clin. Med. 2019, 8, 109.

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