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J. Clin. Med. 2018, 7(8), 214; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm7080214

Nutcracker Syndrome in Children: Role of Doppler Ultrasonographic Indices in Detecting the Pattern of Symptoms

1
Pediatric Nephrology Department, Ondokuz Mayis University Faculty of Medicine, 55220 Samsun, Turkey
2
Pediatric Radiology Department, Ondokuz Mayis University Faculty of Medicine, 55220 Samsun, Turkey
3
Urology Department, Ondokuz Mayis University Faculty of Medicine, 55220 Samsun, Turkey
4
Pediatric Urology Department, Ondokuz Mayis University Faculty of Medicine, 55220 Samsun, Turkey
5
Pediatric Nephrology Department, Istinye University Faculty of Medicine, 34010 Istanbul, Turkey
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 16 July 2018 / Revised: 29 July 2018 / Accepted: 8 August 2018 / Published: 13 August 2018
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Abstract

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical characteristics of 44 pediatric patients who were diagnosed as having nutcracker syndrome (NCS). We also investigated the left renal vein Doppler ultrasonography (DUS) results, to determine whether or not there was an association between clinical symptoms and DUS findings among these patients. The clinical data from 44 pediatric patients who were diagnosed as having NCS from January 2008 to December 2015 were retrospectively reviewed. We grouped the patients according to the presenting symptoms as symptomatic (loin pain; macroscopic hematuria or both) and non-symptomatic (microscopic hematuria and proteinuria were detected incidentally) and evaluated the left renal vein DUS indices in these two groups separately. Asymptomatic NCS was found in 27 (61.4%) patients; 21 (47.7%) of whom were admitted for the evaluation of proteinuria. The most frequent presenting symptoms were left flank pain (20.5%) and macroscopic hematuria (13.6%); and 2 (4.5%) patients presented with a combination of left flank pain and macroscopic hematuria. The mean ratio of the diameter of the hilar portion of the left renal vein (LRV) to that of the aortomesenteric portion was 4.36 ± 1.55. The mean ratio of the peak velocity (PV) between the two sites of the LRV was 7.32 ± 2.68 (3.1–15.6). The differences in the ratio of the diameters were statistically significant between the two groups and significantly higher in children with asymptomatic NCS (p = 0.025). The PV ratios of the LRV (p = 0.035) were significantly higher in asymptomatic children with NCS than in the symptomatic group. Our study identifies that increased compression ratio of the LRV entrapment is most observed in orthostatic proteinuria and microscopic hematuria. View Full-Text
Keywords: left renal vein; nutcracker syndrome; doppler ultrasonography; pediatrics left renal vein; nutcracker syndrome; doppler ultrasonography; pediatrics
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Nalcacioglu, H.; Ceyhan Bilgici, M.; Tekcan, D.; Genc, G.; Bostanci, Y.; Yakupoglu, Y.K.; Sarikaya, S.; Ozkaya, O. Nutcracker Syndrome in Children: Role of Doppler Ultrasonographic Indices in Detecting the Pattern of Symptoms. J. Clin. Med. 2018, 7, 214.

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