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J. Clin. Med. 2018, 7(8), 213;

Molecular Targets in Hepatocarcinogenesis and Implications for Therapy

Department of Emergency Medicine, Taipei Tzu Chi Hospital, Buddhist Tzu Chi Medical Foundation, New Taipei City 231, Taiwan
Department of Emergency Medicine, School of Medicine, Tzu Chi University, Hualien 970, Taiwan
Yuh-Ing Junior College of Health Care & Management, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan
Department of Medical Education and Research, Kaohsiung Veterans General Hospital, Kaohsiung 813, Taiwan
School of Medicine, College of Medicine, Fu Jen Catholic University, New Taipei City 231, Taiwan
Department of Pathology, Show Chwan Memorial Hospital, Changhua 500, Taiwan
National Institute of Cancer Research, National Health Research Institutes, Miaoli 704, Taiwan
Research Assistant Center, Show Chwan Memorial Hospital, Changhua 500, Taiwan
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 8 July 2018 / Revised: 7 August 2018 / Accepted: 10 August 2018 / Published: 13 August 2018
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Hepatocarcinogenesis comprises of multiple, complex steps that occur after liver injury and usually involve several pathways, including telomere dysfunction, cell cycle, WNT/β-catenin signaling, oxidative stress and mitochondria dysfunction, autophagy, apoptosis, and AKT/mTOR signaling. Following liver injury, gene mutations, accumulation of oxidative stress, and local inflammation lead to cell proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, and necrosis. The persistence of this vicious cycle in turn leads to further gene mutation and dysregulation of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12, IL-13, IL-18, and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β, resulting in immune escape by means of the NF-κB and inflammasome signaling pathways. In this review, we summarize studies focusing on the roles of hepatocarcinogenesis and the immune system in liver cancer. In addition, we furnish an overview of recent basic and clinical studies to provide a strong foundation to develop novel anti-carcinogenesis targets for further treatment interventions. View Full-Text
Keywords: liver cancer; hepatocarcinogenesis; inflammasome; NF-κB liver cancer; hepatocarcinogenesis; inflammasome; NF-κB

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Wu, M.-Y.; Yiang, G.-T.; Cheng, P.-W.; Chu, P.-Y.; Li, C.-J. Molecular Targets in Hepatocarcinogenesis and Implications for Therapy. J. Clin. Med. 2018, 7, 213.

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