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Open AccessArticle

Effectiveness of Combined Smartwatch and Social Media Intervention on Breast Cancer Survivor Health Outcomes: A 10-Week Pilot Randomized Trial

1
School of Kinesiology, University of Minnesota, 1900 University Ave. SE, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA
2
College of Pharmacy, and Institute for Health Informatics, University of Minnesota, 8-116 Phillips-Wangensteen Building, 516 Delaware Street SE, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA
3
School of Social Work, The University of Alabama, 1022 Little Hall, Box 870314, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
J. Clin. Med. 2018, 7(6), 140; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm7060140
Received: 16 May 2018 / Revised: 3 June 2018 / Accepted: 5 June 2018 / Published: 7 June 2018
Physical activity (PA) among breast cancer survivors (BCS) can improve this population’s health and quality of life (QoL). This study evaluated the effectiveness of a combined smartwatch- and social media-based health education intervention on BCS’s health outcomes. Thirty BCS ( X ¯ age = 52.6 ± 9.3 years; X ¯ Wt = 80.2 ± 19.6 kg) participated in this 10-week, 2-arm randomized trial, with BCS randomized into: (1) experimental group (n = 16): received Polar M400 smartwatches for daily PA tracking and joined a Facebook group wherein Social Cognitive Theory-related PA tips were provided twice weekly; and (2) comparison group (n = 14): only joined separate, but content-identical Facebook group. Outcomes included PA, physiological, psychosocial, and QoL variables. Specifically, PA and energy expenditure (EE) was assessed by ActiGraph GT3X+ accelerometers while physiological, psychosocial, and QoL were examined via validated instruments at baseline and post-intervention. No baseline group differences were observed for any variable. Ten BCS dropped out of the study (experimental: 4; comparison: 6). Compared to completers, dropouts differed significantly on several outcomes. Thus, a per-protocol analysis was performed, revealing significant group differences for changes in social support (t = −2.1, p = 0.05) and barriers (t = −2.2, p = 0.04). Interestingly, the comparison group demonstrated improvements for both variables while the intervention group demonstrated slightly decreased social support and no change in barriers. Notably, both groups demonstrated similarly increased daily light PA, moderate-to-vigorous PA, EE, and steps of 7.7 min, 5.1 min, 25.1 kcals, and 339 steps, respectively, over time. Despite extensive user training, several experimental BCS found the Polar M400 use difficult—possibly decreasing intervention adherence. Future interventions should utilize simpler smartwatches to promote PA among middle-aged clinical/non-clinical populations. View Full-Text
Keywords: physical activity; quality of life; social cognitive theory; wearable technology physical activity; quality of life; social cognitive theory; wearable technology
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Pope, Z.C.; Zeng, N.; Zhang, R.; Lee, H.Y.; Gao, Z. Effectiveness of Combined Smartwatch and Social Media Intervention on Breast Cancer Survivor Health Outcomes: A 10-Week Pilot Randomized Trial. J. Clin. Med. 2018, 7, 140.

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