Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are well known for their great potential in clinical applications. In fact, MSCs can differentiate into several cell lineages and show paracrine behavior by releasing endogenous factors that stimulate tissue repair and modulate local immune response. Each MSC type is affected by specific biobanking issues—technical issues as well as regulatory and ethical concerns—thus making it quite tricky to safely and commonly use MSC banking for swift regenerative applications. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) include a group of 150–1000 nm vesicles that are released by budding from the plasma membrane into biological fluids and/or in the culture medium from varied and heterogenic cell types. EVs consist of various vesicle types that are defined with different nomenclature such as exosomes, shedding vesicles, nanoparticles, microvesicles and apoptotic bodies. Ectosomes, micro- and nanoparticles generally refer to the direct release of single vesicles from the plasma membrane. While many studies describe exosomes as deriving from multivesicular bodies, solid evidence about the origin of EVs is often lacking. Extracellular vesicles represent an important portion of the cell secretome. Their numerous properties can be used for diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic uses, so EVs are considered to be innovative and smart theranostic tools. The aim of this review is to investigate the usefulness of exosomes as carriers of the whole information panel characterizing the use of MSCs in regenerative medicine. Our purpose is to make a step forward in the development of the NANOmetric BIO-banked MSC-derived Exosome (NANOBIOME).
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