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Plasma Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Concentration and Alveolar Nitric Oxide as Potential Predictors of Disease Progression and Mortality in Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis

Adherence to Glaucoma Medications Over 12 Months in Two US Community Pharmacy Chains

Department of Pharmacotherapy, College of Pharmacy, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84112, USA
Hall & Partners, New York, NY 10022, USA
Marketing and Planning Systems (MaPS), a Division of Millward Brown Analytics, Boston, MA 02116, USA
Harmon City, Inc., West Valley City, UT 84120, USA
Smith’s Food & Drug Centers, Inc., Salt Lake City, UT 84104, USA
Department of Ophthalmology & Visual Sciences, Moran Eye Center, University of Utah School of Medicine, Salt Lake City, UT 84132, USA
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Jane Grant-Kels
J. Clin. Med. 2016, 5(9), 79;
Received: 22 June 2016 / Revised: 25 August 2016 / Accepted: 29 August 2016 / Published: 7 September 2016
This study determined the degree of adherence to medications for glaucoma among patients refilling prescriptions in community pharmacies. Methods: Data abstracted from the dispensing records for 3615 adult patients (18 years or older, predominantly over 45) receiving glaucoma medications from two retail pharmacy chains (64 stores in total) were analyzed. From a 24-month historic data capture period, the 12-month levels of adherence were determined using standard metrics, the proportion of days covered (PDC) and the medication possession ratio (MPR). The overall 12-month mean PDC was only 57%, and the mean MPR was 71%. Using a criterion by which 80% coverage was considered satisfactory adherence, only 30% had satisfactory overall 12-month PDC coverage, and only 37% had satisfactory overall 12-month MPR coverage. Refill adherence increased with age and was highest in the 65-and-older age group (p < 0.001). Differential adherence was found across medication classes, with the highest satisfactory coverage seen for those taking alpha2-adrenergic agonists (PDC = 36.0%; MPR = 47.6%) down to those taking direct cholinergic agonists (PDC = 25.0%; MPR = 31.2%) and combination products (PDC = 22.7%; MPR = 31.0%). Adherence to glaucoma medications in the community setting, as measured by pharmacy refill data, is very poor and represents a critical target for intervention. Community pharmacists are well positioned to monitor and reinforce adherence in this population. View Full-Text
Keywords: adherence; glaucoma; pharmacy adherence; glaucoma; pharmacy
MDPI and ACS Style

Feehan, M.; Munger, M.A.; Cooper, D.K.; Hess, K.T.; Durante, R.; Jones, G.J.; Montuoro, J.; Morrison, M.A.; Clegg, D.; Crandall, A.S.; DeAngelis, M.M. Adherence to Glaucoma Medications Over 12 Months in Two US Community Pharmacy Chains. J. Clin. Med. 2016, 5, 79.

AMA Style

Feehan M, Munger MA, Cooper DK, Hess KT, Durante R, Jones GJ, Montuoro J, Morrison MA, Clegg D, Crandall AS, DeAngelis MM. Adherence to Glaucoma Medications Over 12 Months in Two US Community Pharmacy Chains. Journal of Clinical Medicine. 2016; 5(9):79.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Feehan, Michael; Munger, Mark A.; Cooper, Daniel K.; Hess, Kyle T.; Durante, Richard; Jones, Gregory J.; Montuoro, Jaime; Morrison, Margaux A.; Clegg, Daniel; Crandall, Alan S.; DeAngelis, Margaret M. 2016. "Adherence to Glaucoma Medications Over 12 Months in Two US Community Pharmacy Chains" J. Clin. Med. 5, no. 9: 79.

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