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Switching Roles of TGF-β in Cancer Development: Implications for Therapeutic Target and Biomarker Studies

1
Department of Clinical Cancer Prevention, the University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX 77030, USA
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Department of Translational Molecular Pathology, the University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX 77030, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Andrei Turtoi
J. Clin. Med. 2016, 5(12), 109; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm5120109
Received: 1 October 2016 / Revised: 17 November 2016 / Accepted: 22 November 2016 / Published: 30 November 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biological and Clinical Aspects of TGF-beta in Carcinogenesis)
TGF-β induces complicated and even opposite responses in numerous biological processes, e.g., tumor suppression in pre-malignant cells and metastasis promotion in cancer cells. However, the cellular contextual determinants of these different TGF-β roles remain elusive, and the driver genes triggering the determinants’ changes have not been identified. Recently, however, several findings have provided new insights on the contextual determinants of Smads in TGF-β’s biological processes. These novel switches and their effectors may serve as prognostic biomarkers and therapeutic targets of TGF-β-mediated cancer progression. View Full-Text
Keywords: TGF-β; targeted therapy; role switch; biomarker TGF-β; targeted therapy; role switch; biomarker
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Sun, N.; Taguchi, A.; Hanash, S. Switching Roles of TGF-β in Cancer Development: Implications for Therapeutic Target and Biomarker Studies. J. Clin. Med. 2016, 5, 109.

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