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Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Childhood and Adolescence
 
 
Article

KD Diagnosis Does Not Increase Cardiovascular Risk in Children According to Dynamic Intima–Media Roughness Measurements

1
Department of Paediatric Cardiology, Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich, 81377 Munich, Germany
2
Institute for Medical Information Processing, Biometry and Epidemiology, Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich, 81377 Munich, Germany
3
Department of Sport, Exercise and Health, Division Sport and Exercise Medicine, University of Basel, 4052 Basel, Switzerland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Renate Oberhoffer-Fritz, Annette Wacker-Gussmann and Chrong-Reen Wang
J. Clin. Med. 2022, 11(5), 1177; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm11051177
Received: 29 November 2021 / Revised: 12 January 2022 / Accepted: 18 February 2022 / Published: 22 February 2022
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Childhood and Adolescence)
Background: Kawasaki Disease (KD) is a generalized vasculitis in childhood with possible long-term impact on cardiovascular health besides the presence of coronary artery lesions. Standard vascular parameters such as carotid intima–media thickness (cIMT) have not been established as reliable markers of vascular anomalies after KD. The carotid intima–media roughness (cIMR) representing carotid intimal surface structure is considered a promising surrogate marker for predicting cardiovascular risk even beyond cIMT. We therefore measured cIMR in patients with a history of KD in comparison to healthy controls to investigate whether KD itself and/or KD key clinical aspects are associated with cIMR alterations in the long-term. Methods: We assessed cIMR in this case-control study (44 KD, mean age in years (SD); 13.4 (7.5); 36 controls, mean age 12.1 (5.3)) approximately matched by sex and age. Different clinical outcomes such as the coronary artery status and acute phase inflammation data were analyzed in association with cIMR values. Results: When comparing all patients with KD to healthy controls, we detected no significant difference in cIMR. None of the clinical parameters indicating the disease severity, such as the persistence of coronary artery aneurysm, were significantly associated with our cIMR values. However, according to our marginally significant findings (p = 0.044), we postulate that the end-diastolic cIMR may be rougher than the end-systolic values in KD patients. Conclusions: We detected no significant differences in cIMR between KD patients and controls that could confirm any evidence that KD predisposes patients to a subsequent general arteriopathy. Our results, however, need to be interpreted in the light of the low number of study participants. View Full-Text
Keywords: Kawasaki disease; intima–media roughness; vascular disease Kawasaki disease; intima–media roughness; vascular disease
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MDPI and ACS Style

König, M.; Ullmann, T.; Pastor-Villaescusa, B.; Dalla-Pozza, R.; Bohlig, S.; Schmidt-Trucksäss, A.; Pattathu, J.; Haas, N.A.; Jakob, A. KD Diagnosis Does Not Increase Cardiovascular Risk in Children According to Dynamic Intima–Media Roughness Measurements. J. Clin. Med. 2022, 11, 1177. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm11051177

AMA Style

König M, Ullmann T, Pastor-Villaescusa B, Dalla-Pozza R, Bohlig S, Schmidt-Trucksäss A, Pattathu J, Haas NA, Jakob A. KD Diagnosis Does Not Increase Cardiovascular Risk in Children According to Dynamic Intima–Media Roughness Measurements. Journal of Clinical Medicine. 2022; 11(5):1177. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm11051177

Chicago/Turabian Style

König, Miriam, Theresa Ullmann, Belén Pastor-Villaescusa, Robert Dalla-Pozza, Sarah Bohlig, Arno Schmidt-Trucksäss, Joseph Pattathu, Nikolaus A. Haas, and André Jakob. 2022. "KD Diagnosis Does Not Increase Cardiovascular Risk in Children According to Dynamic Intima–Media Roughness Measurements" Journal of Clinical Medicine 11, no. 5: 1177. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm11051177

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