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Article

Music Intervention for Pain Control in the Pediatric Population: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

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Ph.D. Program for Aging, College of Medicine, China Medical University, Taichung 404, Taiwan
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Mind-Body Interface Laboratory (MBI-Lab), China Medical University Hospital, Taichung 404, Taiwan
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Graduate Institute of Biomedical Sciences, College of Medicine, China Medical University, Taichung 404, Taiwan
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Department of Anesthesiology, China Medical University Hospital, Taichung 404, Taiwan
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Taichung Tzu-Chi Hospital, Taichung 427, Taiwan
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Department of Psychology, College of Medical and Health Science, Asia University, Taichung 413, Taiwan
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Prospect Clinic for Otorhinolaryngology & Neurology, Kaohsiung 811, Taiwan
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Institute of Biomedical Sciences, National Sun Yat-sen University, Kaohsiung 804, Taiwan
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M.D.-Ph.D. Program, College of Medicine, China Medical University, Taichung 404, Taiwan
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School of Chinese Medicine, College of Chinese Medicine, China Medical University, Taichung 404, Taiwan
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An-Nan Hospital, China Medical University, Tainan 709, Taiwan
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Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Marcus Schiltenwolf
J. Clin. Med. 2022, 11(4), 991; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm11040991
Received: 2 January 2022 / Revised: 8 February 2022 / Accepted: 10 February 2022 / Published: 14 February 2022
Music intervention (MI) has been applied as an effective adjunctive treatment for pain control in various clinical settings. However, no meta-analysis has yet been published on the analgesic effects of MI in infants and children. We performed a systematic review of PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library databases to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs) with the keywords “pain” AND “music therapy” from inception to January 2022. Primary outcomes were pain intensity and vital signs. Standardized mean difference (SMD) values and the corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were computed using a random effect model. Subgroup analyses with age groups, types of pain, and music styles were conducted. A total of 38 RCTs involving 5601 participants met the selection criteria. MI significantly decreased the pain levels (SMD = −0.57, p < 0.001), both in the newborn group (p = 0.007) and in the infant/children group (p < 0.001). MI significantly reduced heart rate (SMD = −0.50, p < 0.001) and respiratory rate (SMD = −0.60, p = 0.002) and increased peripheral capillary oxygen saturation (SMD = 0.44, p < 0.001). In subgroup analyses of types of pain, MI had significant effects on prick pain (p = 0.003), chronic and procedural pain (p < 0.001), and postoperative pain (p = 0.018). As for music styles, significant analgesic effects were observed for classical music (p < 0.001), kids’ music (p < 0.001), and pop music (p = 0.001), but not for world music (p = 0.196), special composition (p = 0.092), and multiple music combinations (p = 0.420). In conclusion, our analysis provides supportive evidence about the efficacy of MI, especially classical, kids’, and pop music, in controlling prick, procedural, and postoperative pain in the pediatric population. View Full-Text
Keywords: children; infant; music intervention; pain control children; infant; music intervention; pain control
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MDPI and ACS Style

Ting, B.; Tsai, C.-L.; Hsu, W.-T.; Shen, M.-L.; Tseng, P.-T.; Chen, D.T.-L.; Su, K.-P.; Jingling, L. Music Intervention for Pain Control in the Pediatric Population: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. J. Clin. Med. 2022, 11, 991. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm11040991

AMA Style

Ting B, Tsai C-L, Hsu W-T, Shen M-L, Tseng P-T, Chen DT-L, Su K-P, Jingling L. Music Intervention for Pain Control in the Pediatric Population: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Journal of Clinical Medicine. 2022; 11(4):991. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm11040991

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ting, Berne, Chia-Lin Tsai, Wei-Ti Hsu, Mei-Ling Shen, Ping-Tao Tseng, Daniel T.-L. Chen, Kuan-Pin Su, and Li Jingling. 2022. "Music Intervention for Pain Control in the Pediatric Population: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis" Journal of Clinical Medicine 11, no. 4: 991. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm11040991

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