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Article

Cardiovascular and Pre-Frailty Risk Assessment during Shelter-In-Place Measures Based on Multimodal Biomarkers Collected from Smart Telemedical Wearables

1
AGH University of Science and Technology, 30-059 Krakow, Poland
2
Jagiellonian University Medical College, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine and Gerontology, 30-688 Krakow, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Michele Roccella, Zan Gao and Marcel Blot-Chabaud
J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10(9), 1997; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10091997
Received: 21 February 2021 / Revised: 26 March 2021 / Accepted: 27 April 2021 / Published: 6 May 2021
Wearable devices play a growing role in healthcare applications and disease prevention. We conducted a retrospective study to assess cardiovascular and pre-frailty risk during the Covid-19 shelter-in-place measures on human activity patterns based on multimodal biomarkers collected from smartwatch sensors. For methodology validation we enrolled five adult participants (age range: 32 to 84 years; mean 57 ± 22.38; BMI: 27.80 ± 2.95 kg/m2) categorized by age who were smartwatch users and self-isolating at home during the Covid-19 pandemic. Resting heart rate, daily steps, and minutes asleep were recorded using smartwatch sensors. Overall, we created a dataset of 464 days of continuous measurement that included 50 days of self-isolation at home during the Covid-19 pandemic. Student’s t-test was used to determine significant differences between the pre-Covid-19 and Covid-19 periods. Our findings suggest that there was a significant decrease in the number of daily steps (−57.21%; −4321; 95% CI, 3722 to 4920) and resting heart rate (−4.81%; −3.04; 95% CI, 2.59 to 3.51) during the period of self−isolation compared to the time before lockdown. We found that there was a significant decrease in the number of minutes asleep (−13.48%; −57.91; 95% CI, 16.33 to 99.49) among older adults. Finally, cardiovascular and pre-frailty risk scores were calculated based on biomarkers and evaluated from the clinical perspective. View Full-Text
Keywords: frailty; telemedicine; gerontechnology; wearable sensors; shelter-in-place measures; Covid-19; resting heart rate; sleep duration; activity pattern frailty; telemedicine; gerontechnology; wearable sensors; shelter-in-place measures; Covid-19; resting heart rate; sleep duration; activity pattern
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MDPI and ACS Style

Kańtoch, E.; Kańtoch, A. Cardiovascular and Pre-Frailty Risk Assessment during Shelter-In-Place Measures Based on Multimodal Biomarkers Collected from Smart Telemedical Wearables. J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10, 1997. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10091997

AMA Style

Kańtoch E, Kańtoch A. Cardiovascular and Pre-Frailty Risk Assessment during Shelter-In-Place Measures Based on Multimodal Biomarkers Collected from Smart Telemedical Wearables. Journal of Clinical Medicine. 2021; 10(9):1997. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10091997

Chicago/Turabian Style

Kańtoch, Eliasz, and Anna Kańtoch. 2021. "Cardiovascular and Pre-Frailty Risk Assessment during Shelter-In-Place Measures Based on Multimodal Biomarkers Collected from Smart Telemedical Wearables" Journal of Clinical Medicine 10, no. 9: 1997. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10091997

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