To assess clinical implications of increased nuchal translucency (INT) in twin pregnancies based on the chorionicity. This was a retrospective review of the twin pregnancies who underwent first trimester ultrasound with nuchal translucency (NT) measurement at 11–13 weeks of gestation from January 2006 to December 2014. Data were collected using the OB database and the chart review. Pregnancy outcomes, including gestational weeks at the delivery, abnormal fetal karyotypes, fetal structural anomalies, and twin-specific complications, were analyzed. A total of 1622 twin pregnancies with INT ≥ 95th percentile in one or both fetuses were identified. In all twin pregnancies with INT, abnormal fetal karyotypes were identified in 17 (8.6%) patients (odds ratio = 13.28, CI = 5.990–29.447, p
= 0.000) and twin-specific complications were identified in 23 (11.6%) patients (odds ratio = 2.398, CI = 1.463–3.928, p
= 0.001) compared to those with normal NT. Among the INT group, when the groups were subdivided into monochorionic (MC) and dichorionic (DC) pregnancies, 14.8% and 29.6% of the MC pregnancies had structural anomalies in one or both fetuses (odds ratio = 5.774, 95% CI = 1.445–23.071, p
= 0.01) and twin-specific complications (odds ratio = 4.379, 95% CI = 1.641–11.684, p
= 0.03), respectively, compared to DC pregnancies with 2.9% for structural anomalies and 8.8% for twin-specific complications. The prevalence of abnormal fetal karyotypes was not statistically different in patients with INT when compared between MC and DC pregnancies (p
= 0.329). INT was associated with a higher rate of twin-specific complications and fetal structural anomalies in MC twin pregnancies rather than abnormal fetal karyotype. Therefore, NT measurement in MC twin pregnancies can be a useful tool for predicting adverse pregnancy outcomes. Appropriate counseling and surveillance based on the chorionicity are imperative in the prenatal care of twin pregnancies.
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