Relapsing polychondritis (RPC) is a rare systemic immune-mediated disease characterized by recurrent inflammation of cartilaginous and proteoglycan-rich tissues throughout the body. Auricular, nasal, tracheal, and articular chondritis and arthritis are common systemic symptoms in patients with RPC. Ocular tissues are also targets of inflammation in RPC, and a variety of ocular symptoms are observed in approximately half of the patients with RPC. Scleritis/episcleritis, uveitis, and conjunctivitis are common symptoms associated with RPC. Less frequently, keratitis, retinopathy, optic neuropathy, muscle palsy, and orbital inflammation are also observed. Ocular inflammation could also be the first manifestation of RPC. Although RPC is a potentially fatal and sight-threatening disease, the rarity of the disease and its protean clinical presentation may lead to delayed diagnosis or misdiagnosis. Given the high prevalence of ocular involvement in RPC, to avoid misdiagnosis, physicians should be suspicious of RPC when they see patients with recurrent ocular inflammatory conditions and various systemic symptoms. In this article, we provide a comprehensive review of ocular manifestations associated with RPC.
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