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Article

Cross-Cultural Adaptation, Reliability, and Psychophysical Validation of the Pain and Sleep Questionnaire Three-Item Index in Finnish

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Private Practice, Helsinki, Finland
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Department of Surgery (Incl. Physiatry), Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Eastern Finland, 70211 Kuopio, Finland
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Institute of Clinical Medicine-Neurosurgery, University of Eastern Finland, 70211 Kuopio, Finland
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Department of Neurosurgery, Kuopio University Hospital,70211 Kuopio, Finland
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ZHAW School of Health Professions, Zurich University of Applied Sciences, CH-8401 Winterthur, Switzerland
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Department of Clinical and Movement Neurosciences, University College London, London WC1E 6BT, UK
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Department of Applied Physics, University of Eastern Finland, 70211 Kuopio, Finland
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Department of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine, Kuopio University Hospital, 70211 Kuopio, Finland
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Science Service Center, Kuopio University Hospital, 70211 Kuopio, Finland
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Department of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine, Kuopio University Hospital, 70211 Kuopio, Finland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Jo Nijs
J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10(21), 4887; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10214887
Received: 6 September 2021 / Revised: 17 October 2021 / Accepted: 20 October 2021 / Published: 23 October 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lifestyle and Chronic Pain)
Reciprocal relationships between chronic musculoskeletal pain and various sleep disturbances are well established. The Pain and Sleep Questionnaire three-item index (PSQ-3) is a concise, valid, and reliable patient-reported outcome measure (PROM) that directly evaluates how sleep is affected by chronic low back pain (CLBP). Translation and cross-cultural validation of The Pain and Sleep Questionnaire three-item index Finnish version (PSQ-3-FI) were conducted according to established guidelines. The validation sample was 229 subjects, including 42 pain-free controls and 187 subjects with chronic musculoskeletal pain. Our aims were to evaluate internal consistency, test–retest reliability, measurement error, structural validity, convergent validity, and discriminative validity and, furthermore, to study the relationships between dizziness, postural control on a force plate, and objective sleep quality metrics and total PSQ-3-FI score. The PSQ-3-FI demonstrated good internal consistency, excellent test–retest reliability, and small measurement error. Confirmatory factor analysis confirmed acceptable fit indices to a one-factor model. Convergent validity indicated fair to good correlation with pain history and well-established pain-related PROMs. The PSQ-3-FI total score successfully distinguished between the groups with no pain, single-site pain, and multisite pain. A higher prevalence of dizziness, more impaired postural control, and a general trend towards poorer sleep quality were observed among subjects with higher PSQ-3-FI scores. Postural control instability was more evident in eyes-open tests. The Finnish PSQ-3 translation was successfully cross-culturally adapted and validated. The PSQ-3-FI appears to be a valid and reliable PROM for the Finnish-speaking CLBP population. More widespread implementation of PSQ-3 would lead to better understanding of the direct effects of pain on sleep. View Full-Text
Keywords: pain; chronic low back pain; sleep; questionnaire; cross-cultural validation; patient-reported outcome measure; postural control; dizziness; actigraphy; sleep quality pain; chronic low back pain; sleep; questionnaire; cross-cultural validation; patient-reported outcome measure; postural control; dizziness; actigraphy; sleep quality
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MDPI and ACS Style

Mikkonen, J.; Leinonen, V.; Luomajoki, H.; Kaski, D.; Kupari, S.; Tarvainen, M.; Selander, T.; Airaksinen, O. Cross-Cultural Adaptation, Reliability, and Psychophysical Validation of the Pain and Sleep Questionnaire Three-Item Index in Finnish. J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10, 4887. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10214887

AMA Style

Mikkonen J, Leinonen V, Luomajoki H, Kaski D, Kupari S, Tarvainen M, Selander T, Airaksinen O. Cross-Cultural Adaptation, Reliability, and Psychophysical Validation of the Pain and Sleep Questionnaire Three-Item Index in Finnish. Journal of Clinical Medicine. 2021; 10(21):4887. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10214887

Chicago/Turabian Style

Mikkonen, Jani, Ville Leinonen, Hannu Luomajoki, Diego Kaski, Saana Kupari, Mika Tarvainen, Tuomas Selander, and Olavi Airaksinen. 2021. "Cross-Cultural Adaptation, Reliability, and Psychophysical Validation of the Pain and Sleep Questionnaire Three-Item Index in Finnish" Journal of Clinical Medicine 10, no. 21: 4887. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10214887

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