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Article

The Impact of Binge Drinking on Mortality and Liver Disease in the Swiss HIV Cohort Study

1
Department of Infectious Diseases, Inselspital, Bern University Hospital, University of Bern, 3010 Bern, Switzerland
2
Addiction Medicine, Department of Psychiatry, Lausanne University Hospital, University of Lausanne, 1011 Lausanne, Switzerland
3
Division of Infectious Diseases, University Hospital of Lausanne, University of Lausanne, 1011 Lausanne, Switzerland
4
Division of Infectious Diseases, Geneva University Hospital, University of Geneva, 1205 Geneva, Switzerland
5
Division of Infectious Diseases and Hospital Epidemiology, University Hospital Zurich, University of Zurich, 8091 Zurich, Switzerland
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Institute of Medical Virology, University of Zurich, 8057 Zurich, Switzerland
7
Division of Infectious Diseases and Hospital Epidemiology, University Hospital Basel, University of Basel, 4031 Basel, Switzerland
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Division of Infectious Diseases, Regional Hospital of Lugano, 6903 Lugano, Switzerland
9
Division of Infectious Diseases, Cantonal Hospital of St. Gallen, 9007 St. Gallen, Switzerland
10
Institute of Social and Preventive Medicine, University of Bern, 3012 Bern, Switzerland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Membership of the Swiss HIV Cohort Study is provided in the Acknowledgments.
J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10(2), 295; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10020295
Received: 1 December 2020 / Revised: 4 January 2021 / Accepted: 11 January 2021 / Published: 14 January 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Alcohol, Brain, and the Liver: A Troubled Relationship)
Whereas excessive alcohol consumption increases liver disease incidence and mortality, evidence on the risk associated with specific drinking patterns is emerging. We assessed the impact of binge drinking on mortality and liver disease in the Swiss HIV Cohort Study. All participants with follow-up between 2013 and 2020 were categorized into one of four drinking pattern groups: “abstinence”, “non-hazardous drinking”, “hazardous but not binge drinking” (Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test Consumption [AUDIT-C] score ≥ 3 in women and ≥4 in men), and “binge drinking” (≥6 drinks/occasion more than monthly). We estimated adjusted incidence rate ratios (aIRR) for all-cause mortality, liver-related mortality and liver-related events using multivariable quasi-Poisson regression. Among 11,849 individuals (median follow-up 6.8 years), 470 died (incidence rate 7.1/1000 person-years, 95% confidence interval [CI] 6.5–7.8), 37 experienced a liver-related death (0.6/1000, 0.4–0.8), and 239 liver-related events occurred (3.7/1000, 3.2–4.2). Compared to individuals with non-hazardous drinking, those reporting binge drinking were more likely to die (all-cause mortality: aIRR 1.9, 95% CI 1.3–2.7; liver-related mortality: 3.6, 0.9–13.9) and to experience a liver-related event (3.8, 2.4–5.8). We observed no difference in outcomes between participants reporting non-hazardous and hazardous without binge drinking. These findings highlight the importance of assessing drinking patterns in clinical routine. View Full-Text
Keywords: alcohol; binge drinking; HIV; liver-related outcomes; mortality alcohol; binge drinking; HIV; liver-related outcomes; mortality
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MDPI and ACS Style

Surial, B.; Bertholet, N.; Daeppen, J.-B.; Darling, K.E.A.; Calmy, A.; Günthard, H.F.; Stöckle, M.; Bernasconi, E.; Schmid, P.; Rauch, A.; Furrer, H.; Wandeler, G.; The Swiss HIV Cohort Study. The Impact of Binge Drinking on Mortality and Liver Disease in the Swiss HIV Cohort Study. J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10, 295. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10020295

AMA Style

Surial B, Bertholet N, Daeppen J-B, Darling KEA, Calmy A, Günthard HF, Stöckle M, Bernasconi E, Schmid P, Rauch A, Furrer H, Wandeler G, The Swiss HIV Cohort Study. The Impact of Binge Drinking on Mortality and Liver Disease in the Swiss HIV Cohort Study. Journal of Clinical Medicine. 2021; 10(2):295. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10020295

Chicago/Turabian Style

Surial, Bernard, Nicolas Bertholet, Jean-Bernard Daeppen, Katharine E.A. Darling, Alexandra Calmy, Huldrych F. Günthard, Marcel Stöckle, Enos Bernasconi, Patrick Schmid, Andri Rauch, Hansjakob Furrer, Gilles Wandeler, and The Swiss HIV Cohort Study. 2021. "The Impact of Binge Drinking on Mortality and Liver Disease in the Swiss HIV Cohort Study" Journal of Clinical Medicine 10, no. 2: 295. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10020295

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