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Article

Differences in Inflammatory Marker Kinetics between the First and Second Wave of COVID-19 Patients Admitted to the ICU: A Retrospective, Single-Center Study

1
Critical Care Directorate, Grange University Hospital, Aneurin Bevan University Health Board, Llanyravon, Cwmbran NP44 8YN, UK
2
Department of Anaesthesia, Intensive Care and Pain Medicine, Division of Population Medicine, Cardiff University, Cardiff CF14 4XN, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Ferdinando Nicoletti
J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10(15), 3290; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10153290
Received: 25 May 2021 / Revised: 22 July 2021 / Accepted: 23 July 2021 / Published: 26 July 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Immunology in Critical Illness - Immune Response and Immunotherapy)
Background: We sought to determine if there was a difference in the longitudinal inflammatory response measured by white blood cell count (WBC), C-reactive protein (CRP), procalcitonin (PCT), and ferritin levels between the first and the second COVID-19 wave of ICU patients. Methods: In a single-center retrospective observational study, ICU patients were enrolled during the first and second waves of the COVID-19 pandemic. Data were collected on patient demographics, comorbidities, laboratory results, management strategies, and complications during the ICU stay. The inflammatory response was evaluated using WBC count, CRP, PCT, and Ferritin levels on the day of admission until Day 28, respectively. Organ dysfunction was measured by the SOFA score. Results: 65 patients were admitted during the first and 113 patients during the second wave. WBC and ferritin levels were higher in the second wave. CRP and PCT showed markedly different longitudinal kinetics up until day 28 of ICU stay between the first and second wave, with significantly lower levels in the second wave. Steroid and immunomodulatory therapy use was significantly greater in the second wave. Mortality was similar in both waves. Conclusions: We found that there was a significantly reduced inflammatory response in the second wave, which is likely to be attributable to the more widespread use of immunomodulatory therapies. View Full-Text
Keywords: COVID-19; procalcitonin; C-reactive protein; corticosteroid; immunomodulation COVID-19; procalcitonin; C-reactive protein; corticosteroid; immunomodulation
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MDPI and ACS Style

Szakmany, T.; Tuckwell, W.; Harte, E.; Wetherall, N.; Ramachandran, S.; Price, S.; Breen, H.; Killick, C.; Cheema, Y.; King, C.; Richards, O. Differences in Inflammatory Marker Kinetics between the First and Second Wave of COVID-19 Patients Admitted to the ICU: A Retrospective, Single-Center Study. J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10, 3290. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10153290

AMA Style

Szakmany T, Tuckwell W, Harte E, Wetherall N, Ramachandran S, Price S, Breen H, Killick C, Cheema Y, King C, Richards O. Differences in Inflammatory Marker Kinetics between the First and Second Wave of COVID-19 Patients Admitted to the ICU: A Retrospective, Single-Center Study. Journal of Clinical Medicine. 2021; 10(15):3290. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10153290

Chicago/Turabian Style

Szakmany, Tamas, William Tuckwell, Elsa Harte, Nick Wetherall, Saraswathi Ramachandran, Shannon Price, Henry Breen, Charlotte Killick, Yusuf Cheema, Charles King, and Owen Richards. 2021. "Differences in Inflammatory Marker Kinetics between the First and Second Wave of COVID-19 Patients Admitted to the ICU: A Retrospective, Single-Center Study" Journal of Clinical Medicine 10, no. 15: 3290. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10153290

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