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The Number of Pregnancies and Deliveries and Their Association with Selected Morphological and Hemodynamic Parameters of the Pelvic and Abdominal Venous System
Review

Understanding Chronic Venous Disease: A Critical Overview of Its Pathophysiology and Medical Management

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Department of Medicine and Medical Specialities, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Alcalá, 28801 Alcalá de Henares, Spain
2
Ramón y Cajal Institute of Sanitary Research (IRYCIS), 28034 Madrid, Spain
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Cancer Registry and Pathology Department, Hospital Universitario Principe de Asturias, 28806 Alcalá de Henares, Spain
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Department of Surgery, Medical and Social Sciences, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Alcalá, 28801 Alcalá de Henares, Spain
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Department of Vascular Surgery, Príncipe de Asturias Hospital, 28801 Alcalá de Henares, Spain
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Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Graduate School of Public Health and Health Policy, The City University of New York, New York, NY 10027, USA
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Immune System Diseases—Rheumatology and Internal Medicine Service, University Hospital Príncipe de Asturias, (CIBEREHD), 28806 Alcalá de Henares, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equality in this work.
These authors shared senior authorship in this work.
Academic Editor: Attilio Cavezzi
J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10(15), 3239; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10153239
Received: 29 June 2021 / Revised: 19 July 2021 / Accepted: 20 July 2021 / Published: 22 July 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Perspectives in Phlebology and Lymphology)
Chronic venous disease (CVD) is a multifactorial condition affecting an important percentage of the global population. It ranges from mild clinical signs, such as telangiectasias or reticular veins, to severe manifestations, such as venous ulcerations. However, varicose veins (VVs) are the most common manifestation of CVD. The explicit mechanisms of the disease are not well-understood. It seems that genetics and a plethora of environmental agents play an important role in the development and progression of CVD. The exposure to these factors leads to altered hemodynamics of the venous system, described as ambulatory venous hypertension, therefore promoting microcirculatory changes, inflammatory responses, hypoxia, venous wall remodeling, and epigenetic variations, even with important systemic implications. Thus, a proper clinical management of patients with CVD is essential to prevent potential harms of the disease, which also entails a significant loss of the quality of life in these individuals. Hence, the aim of the present review is to collect the current knowledge of CVD, including its epidemiology, etiology, and risk factors, but emphasizing the pathophysiology and medical care of these patients, including clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and treatments. Furthermore, future directions will also be covered in this work in order to provide potential fields to explore in the context of CVD. View Full-Text
Keywords: chronic venous disease (CVD); varicose veins; venous pathophysiology; vascular therapies; venous hypertension chronic venous disease (CVD); varicose veins; venous pathophysiology; vascular therapies; venous hypertension
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MDPI and ACS Style

Ortega, M.A.; Fraile-Martínez, O.; García-Montero, C.; Álvarez-Mon, M.A.; Chaowen, C.; Ruiz-Grande, F.; Pekarek, L.; Monserrat, J.; Asúnsolo, A.; García-Honduvilla, N.; Álvarez-Mon, M.; Bujan, J. Understanding Chronic Venous Disease: A Critical Overview of Its Pathophysiology and Medical Management. J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10, 3239. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10153239

AMA Style

Ortega MA, Fraile-Martínez O, García-Montero C, Álvarez-Mon MA, Chaowen C, Ruiz-Grande F, Pekarek L, Monserrat J, Asúnsolo A, García-Honduvilla N, Álvarez-Mon M, Bujan J. Understanding Chronic Venous Disease: A Critical Overview of Its Pathophysiology and Medical Management. Journal of Clinical Medicine. 2021; 10(15):3239. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10153239

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ortega, Miguel A., Oscar Fraile-Martínez, Cielo García-Montero, Miguel A. Álvarez-Mon, Chen Chaowen, Fernando Ruiz-Grande, Leonel Pekarek, Jorge Monserrat, Angel Asúnsolo, Natalio García-Honduvilla, Melchor Álvarez-Mon, and Julia Bujan. 2021. "Understanding Chronic Venous Disease: A Critical Overview of Its Pathophysiology and Medical Management" Journal of Clinical Medicine 10, no. 15: 3239. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10153239

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