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Review

A Comprehensive Review of Tic Disorders in Children

by 1,* and 1,2,3,4
1
Department of Neurology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63110, USA
2
Department of Psychiatry, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63110, USA
3
Department of Radiology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63110, USA
4
Department of Neuroscience, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63110, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Giuseppe Lanza
J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10(11), 2479; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10112479
Received: 8 April 2021 / Revised: 28 May 2021 / Accepted: 31 May 2021 / Published: 3 June 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Clinical and Pathophysiological Studies of Tourette Syndrome)
Tics are characterized by sudden, rapid, recurrent, nonrhythmic movement or vocalization, and are the most common movement disorders in children. Their onset is usually in childhood and tics often will diminish within one year. However, some of the tics can persist and cause various problems such as social embarrassment, physical discomfort, or emotional impairments, which could interfere with daily activities and school performance. Furthermore, tic disorders are frequently associated with comorbid neuropsychiatric symptoms, which can become more problematic than tic symptoms. Unfortunately, misunderstanding and misconceptions of tic disorders still exist among the general population. Understanding tic disorders and their comorbidities is important to deliver appropriate care to patients with tics. Several studies have been conducted to elucidate the clinical course, epidemiology, and pathophysiology of tics, but they are still not well understood. This article aims to provide an overview about tics and tic disorders, and recent findings on tic disorders including history, definition, diagnosis, epidemiology, etiology, diagnostic approach, comorbidities, treatment and management, and differential diagnosis. View Full-Text
Keywords: tics; Tourette syndrome; natural course; differential diagnosis; pediatric movement disorder; premonitory urge; comorbid symptoms tics; Tourette syndrome; natural course; differential diagnosis; pediatric movement disorder; premonitory urge; comorbid symptoms
MDPI and ACS Style

Ueda, K.; Black, K.J. A Comprehensive Review of Tic Disorders in Children. J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10, 2479. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10112479

AMA Style

Ueda K, Black KJ. A Comprehensive Review of Tic Disorders in Children. Journal of Clinical Medicine. 2021; 10(11):2479. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10112479

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ueda, Keisuke, and Kevin J. Black. 2021. "A Comprehensive Review of Tic Disorders in Children" Journal of Clinical Medicine 10, no. 11: 2479. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10112479

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