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Membranes 2018, 8(3), 80; https://doi.org/10.3390/membranes8030080

Utilization of DES-Lignin as a Bio-Based Hydrophilicity Promoter in the Fabrication of Antioxidant Polyethersulfone Membranes

1
LUT School of Engineering Science, Department of Separation and Purification Technology, Lappeenranta University of Technology, P.O. Box 20, Lappeenranta FIN-53851, Finland
2
LUT Re-Source Platform, Lappeenranta University of Technology, P.O. Box 20, 53851 Lappeenranta, Finland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 13 August 2018 / Revised: 4 September 2018 / Accepted: 5 September 2018 / Published: 8 September 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fouling and Cleaning in Membrane Processes)
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Abstract

Enhancement of membrane permeability at no detriment of its other performances, e.g., selectivity, is a goal-directed objective in membrane fabrication. A novel antioxidant DES-lignin (lignin extracted from birch wood by using a deep eutectic solvent) polyethersulfone (PES) membrane, containing 0–1 wt % DES-lignin, was fabricated with the phase inversion technique. The performance and morphology of the fabricated membranes were characterized by a pure water flux, polyethylene glycol (PEG) retention, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and contact angle measurements. Membranes with less negative charge and better hydrophilicity were obtained when the DES-lignin content in the polymer solution was increased. With the highest dosage, the incorporation of DES-lignin in the membrane matrix improved the membrane permeability by 29.4% compared to a pure PES membrane. Moreover, no leakage of DES-lignin from the membrane structure was observed, indicating good compatibility of DES-lignin with the PES structure. It was also found that the improvement of both rejection and pure water flux could be achieved by using a small dosage of DES-lignin (0.25 wt %) in membrane fabrication. The membranes incorporated with DES-lignin showed higher DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) and ABTS (2,2-Azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid)) scavenging activity compared to the pure membrane, where 2.6 and 1.1 times higher DPPH and ABTS scavenging activity was observed with the highest DES-lignin content (1 wt %). Thus, the results of this study demonstrate well the feasibility of utilizing DES-lignin as an antioxidant bio-based hydrophilicity promoter in the fabrication of ultrafiltration membranes. View Full-Text
Keywords: lignin; deep eutectic solvent (DES); antioxidant; hydrophilic adhesion promoter; green solvent lignin; deep eutectic solvent (DES); antioxidant; hydrophilic adhesion promoter; green solvent
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Esmaeili, M.; Anugwom, I.; Mänttäri, M.; Kallioinen, M. Utilization of DES-Lignin as a Bio-Based Hydrophilicity Promoter in the Fabrication of Antioxidant Polyethersulfone Membranes. Membranes 2018, 8, 80.

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