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Article

Mixed Matrix Membranes Adsorbers (MMMAs) for the Removal of Uremic Toxins from Dialysate

1
Department of Civil, Chemical Environmental and Materials Engineering, DICAM, University of Bologna, Via Terracini 28, 40131 Bologna, Italy
2
Institute for Materials and Processes, School of Engineering, University of Edinburgh, Sanderson Building, Robert Stevenson Road, Edinburgh EH9 3FB, UK
3
Italian Consortium for Science and Technology of Materials (INSTM), 50121 Firenze, Italy
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Current address: GVS S.p.A via Guido Rossa 30, 40069 Zola Predosa, Italy.
Academic Editors: Ahmad Fauzi Ismail and Lasâad Dammak
Membranes 2022, 12(2), 203; https://doi.org/10.3390/membranes12020203
Received: 30 December 2021 / Revised: 21 January 2022 / Accepted: 1 February 2022 / Published: 9 February 2022
We developed Mixed Matrix Membrane Adsorbers (MMMAs) formed by cellulose acetate and various sorbent particles (activated carbon, zeolites ZSM-5 and clinoptilolite) for the removal of urea, creatinine and uric acid from aqueous solutions, to be used in the regeneration of spent dialysate water from Hemodialysis (HD). This process would allow reducing the disproportionate amount of water consumed and permits the development of closed-loop HD devices, such as wearable artificial kidneys. The strategy of MMMAs is to combine the high permeability of porous membranes with the toxin-capturing ability of embedded particles. The water permeability of the MMMAs ranges between 600 and 1500 L/(h m2 bar). The adsorption of urea, the limiting toxin, can be improved of about nine times with respect to the pure cellulose acetate membrane. Flow experiments demonstrate the feasibility of the process in a real HD therapy session. View Full-Text
Keywords: porous mixed matrix membrane adsorbers; uremic toxins; urea; zeolite; activated carbon; water purification; dialysis porous mixed matrix membrane adsorbers; uremic toxins; urea; zeolite; activated carbon; water purification; dialysis
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MDPI and ACS Style

De Pascale, M.; De Angelis, M.G.; Boi, C. Mixed Matrix Membranes Adsorbers (MMMAs) for the Removal of Uremic Toxins from Dialysate. Membranes 2022, 12, 203. https://doi.org/10.3390/membranes12020203

AMA Style

De Pascale M, De Angelis MG, Boi C. Mixed Matrix Membranes Adsorbers (MMMAs) for the Removal of Uremic Toxins from Dialysate. Membranes. 2022; 12(2):203. https://doi.org/10.3390/membranes12020203

Chicago/Turabian Style

De Pascale, Matilde, Maria G. De Angelis, and Cristiana Boi. 2022. "Mixed Matrix Membranes Adsorbers (MMMAs) for the Removal of Uremic Toxins from Dialysate" Membranes 12, no. 2: 203. https://doi.org/10.3390/membranes12020203

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