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Article

The Influence of Concentration and Temperature on the Membrane Resistance of Ion Exchange Membranes and the Levelised Cost of Hydrogen from Reverse Electrodialysis with Ammonium Bicarbonate

1
Department of Energy and Process Engineering, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Kolbjørn Hejes vei 1B, NO-7491 Trondheim, Norway
2
SINTEF Energy Research, NO-7465 Trondheim, Norway
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Yoshihiko Sano
Membranes 2021, 11(2), 135; https://doi.org/10.3390/membranes11020135
Received: 16 December 2020 / Revised: 4 February 2021 / Accepted: 5 February 2021 / Published: 16 February 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Membrane Technology on Desalination and Concentration)
The ohmic resistances of the anion and cation ion-exchange membranes (IEMs) that constitute a reverse electrodialysis system (RED) are of crucial importance for its performance. In this work, we study the influence of concentration (0.1 M, 0.5 M, 1 M and 2 M) of ammonium bicarbonate solutions on the ohmic resistances of ten commercial IEMs. We also studied the ohmic resistance at elevated temperature 313 K. Measurements have been performed with a direct two-electrode electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) method. As the ohmic resistance of the IEMs depends linearly on the membrane thickness, we measured the impedance for three different layered thicknesses, and the results were normalised. To gauge the role of the membrane resistances in the use of RED for production of hydrogen by use of waste heat, we used a thermodynamic and an economic model to study the impact of the ohmic resistance of the IEMs on hydrogen production rate, waste heat required, thermochemical conversion efficiency and the levelised cost of hydrogen. The highest performance was achieved with a stack made of FAS30 and CSO Type IEMs, producing hydrogen at 8.48× 107 kg mmem2s1 with a waste heat requirement of 344 kWh kg1 hydrogen. This yielded an operating efficiency of 9.7% and a levelised cost of 7.80 € kgH21. View Full-Text
Keywords: reverse electrodialysis (RED); anion-exchange membrane; cation-exchange membrane; membrane resistance; membrane resistivity; ion-exchange membrane; hydrogen production; ammonium bicarbonate; low-grade waste heat to hydrogen reverse electrodialysis (RED); anion-exchange membrane; cation-exchange membrane; membrane resistance; membrane resistivity; ion-exchange membrane; hydrogen production; ammonium bicarbonate; low-grade waste heat to hydrogen
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MDPI and ACS Style

Raka, Y.D.; Bock, R.; Karoliussen, H.; Wilhelmsen, Ø.; Stokke Burheim, O. The Influence of Concentration and Temperature on the Membrane Resistance of Ion Exchange Membranes and the Levelised Cost of Hydrogen from Reverse Electrodialysis with Ammonium Bicarbonate. Membranes 2021, 11, 135. https://doi.org/10.3390/membranes11020135

AMA Style

Raka YD, Bock R, Karoliussen H, Wilhelmsen Ø, Stokke Burheim O. The Influence of Concentration and Temperature on the Membrane Resistance of Ion Exchange Membranes and the Levelised Cost of Hydrogen from Reverse Electrodialysis with Ammonium Bicarbonate. Membranes. 2021; 11(2):135. https://doi.org/10.3390/membranes11020135

Chicago/Turabian Style

Raka, Yash D., Robert Bock, Håvard Karoliussen, Øivind Wilhelmsen, and Odne Stokke Burheim. 2021. "The Influence of Concentration and Temperature on the Membrane Resistance of Ion Exchange Membranes and the Levelised Cost of Hydrogen from Reverse Electrodialysis with Ammonium Bicarbonate" Membranes 11, no. 2: 135. https://doi.org/10.3390/membranes11020135

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