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Open AccessArticle

Experimental and Theoretical Analysis of Lead Pb2+ and Cd2+ Retention from a Single Salt Using a Hollow Fiber PES Membrane

1
Environment Engineering Department, College of Engineering, University of Tikrit, 34001 Tikrit, Iraq
2
Environment Engineering Department, College of Engineering, University of Baghdad, 10071 Baghdad, Iraq
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Department of Chemical Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Baghdad, 10071 Baghdad, Iraq
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Environment Geology Department, College of Science, University of Tikrit, 34001 Tikrit, Iraq
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Department of Chemical Engineering and Petroleum Industries, AlMustaqbal University College, Babylon 51001, Iraq
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Membrane Technology Research Unit, Chemical Engineering Department, University of Technology, 10066 Baghdad, Iraq
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Institute on Membrane Technology, National Research Council (ITM-CNR), 87030 Rende (CS), Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Membranes 2020, 10(7), 136; https://doi.org/10.3390/membranes10070136
Received: 6 June 2020 / Revised: 26 June 2020 / Accepted: 28 June 2020 / Published: 30 June 2020
The present work reports the performance of three types of polyethersulfone (PES) membrane in the removal of highly polluting and toxic lead Pb2+ and cadmium Cd2+ ions from a single salt. This study investigated the effect of operating variables, including pH, types of PES membrane, and feed concentration, on the separation process. The transport parameters and mass transfer coefficient (k) of the membranes were estimated using the combined film theory-solution-diffusion (CFSD), combined film theory-Spiegler-Kedem (CFSK), and combined film theory-finely-porous (CFFP) membrane transport models. Various parameters were used to estimate the enrichment factors, concentration polarization modulus, and Péclet number. The pH values significantly affected the permeation flux of the Pb2+ solution but only had a slight effect on the Cd2+ solution. However, Cd2+ rejection was highly improved by increasing the pH value. The rejection of the PES membranes increased greatly as the heavy metal concentration rose, while the heavy metal concentration moderately affected the permeation flux. The maximum rejection of Pb2+ in a single-salt solution was 99%, 97.5%, and 98% for a feed solution containing 10 mg Pb/L at pH 6, 6.2, and 5.7, for PES1, PES2, and PES3, respectively. The maximum rejection of Cd2+ in single-salt solutions was 78%, 50.2%, and 44% for a feed solution containing 10 mg Cd/L at pH 6.5, 6.2, and 6.5, for PES1, PES2, and PES3, respectively. The analysis of the experimental data using the CFSD, CFSK, and CFFP models showed a good agreement between the theoretical and experimental results. The effective membrane thickness and active skin layer thickness were evaluated using the CFFP model, indicating that the Péclet number is important for determining the mechanism of separation by diffusion.
Keywords: hollow fiber membrane; CFSK model; CFSD model; CFFP model; wastewater treatment; heavy metals hollow fiber membrane; CFSK model; CFSD model; CFFP model; wastewater treatment; heavy metals
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Hadi, S.; Mohammed, A.A.; Al-Jubouri, S.M.; Abd, M.F.; Majdi, H.S.; Alsalhy, Q.F.; Rashid, K.T.; Ibrahim, S.S.; Salih, I.K.; Figoli, A. Experimental and Theoretical Analysis of Lead Pb2+ and Cd2+ Retention from a Single Salt Using a Hollow Fiber PES Membrane. Membranes 2020, 10, 136.

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