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Open AccessReview

Solid-Contact Ion-Selective Electrodes: Response Mechanisms, Transducer Materials and Wearable Sensors

1
School of Civil Engineering, c/o Center for Advanced Analytical Science, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Guangzhou University, Guangzhou 510006, China
2
State Key Laboratory of Electroanalytical Chemistry, c/o Engineering Laboratory for Modern Analytical Techniques, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022, China
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University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039, China
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School of Information Science and Technology, Northeast Normal University, Changchun 130117, China
5
MOE Key Laboratory for Water Quality and Conservation of the Pearl River Delta, Guangzhou University, Guangzhou 510006, China
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Membranes 2020, 10(6), 128; https://doi.org/10.3390/membranes10060128
Received: 28 May 2020 / Revised: 15 June 2020 / Accepted: 16 June 2020 / Published: 23 June 2020
Wearable sensors based on solid-contact ion-selective electrodes (SC-ISEs) are currently attracting intensive attention in monitoring human health conditions through real-time and non-invasive analysis of ions in biological fluids. SC-ISEs have gone through a revolution with improvements in potential stability and reproducibility. The introduction of new transducing materials, the understanding of theoretical potentiometric responses, and wearable applications greatly facilitate SC-ISEs. We review recent advances in SC-ISEs including the response mechanism (redox capacitance and electric-double-layer capacitance mechanisms) and crucial solid transducer materials (conducting polymers, carbon and other nanomaterials) and applications in wearable sensors. At the end of the review we illustrate the existing challenges and prospects for future SC-ISEs. We expect this review to provide readers with a general picture of SC-ISEs and appeal to further establishing protocols for evaluating SC-ISEs and accelerating commercial wearable sensors for clinical diagnosis and family practice. View Full-Text
Keywords: ion selective electrodes; wearable sensors; solid-contact materials; response mechanism ion selective electrodes; wearable sensors; solid-contact materials; response mechanism
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MDPI and ACS Style

Lyu, Y.; Gan, S.; Bao, Y.; Zhong, L.; Xu, J.; Wang, W.; Liu, Z.; Ma, Y.; Yang, G.; Niu, L. Solid-Contact Ion-Selective Electrodes: Response Mechanisms, Transducer Materials and Wearable Sensors. Membranes 2020, 10, 128.

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