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Open AccessArticle

Separation and Recycling of Concentrated Heavy Metal Wastewater by Tube Membrane Distillation Integrated with Crystallization

1
National Engineering Lab. of Biohydrometallurgy, GRINM Technology Group Co., Ltd., Beijing 101407, China
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GTS Research Group, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08290 Bellaterra, Spain
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General Research Institute for Nonferrous Metals, Beijing 100088, China
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GRINM Resources and Environmental Tech. Co., Ltd., Beijing 101407, China
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Beijing Vocational College of Labor and Social Security, Beijing 102200, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Membranes 2020, 10(1), 19; https://doi.org/10.3390/membranes10010019
Received: 7 December 2019 / Revised: 14 January 2020 / Accepted: 17 January 2020 / Published: 20 January 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Membrane Engineering and Applications)
Tube membrane distillation (MD) integrated with a crystallization method is used in this study for the concurrent productions of pure water and salt crystals from concentrated single and mixed system solutions. The effects of concentrated Zn2+ and Ni2+ on performance in terms of membrane flux, permeate conductivity, crystal recovery rates, and crystal grades are investigated. Preferred crystallization and co-crystallization determinations were performed for mixed solutions. The results revealed that membrane fluxes remained at 2.61 kg·m−2·h−1 and showed a sharp decline until the saturation increased to 1.38. Water yield conductivity was below 10 μs·cm−1. High concentrated zinc and nickel did not have a particular effect on the rejection of the membrane process. For the mixed solutions, membrane flux showed a sharp decrease due to the high saturation, while the conductivity of permeate remained below 10 μs·cm−1 during the whole process. Co-crystallization has been proven to be a better method due to the existence of the SO42− common-ion effect. Membrane fouling studies have suggested that the membrane has excellent resistance to fouling from highly concentrated solutions. The MD integrated with crystallization proves to be a promising technology for treating highly concentrated heavy metal solutions. View Full-Text
Keywords: wastewater treatment; membrane distillation; crystallization; heavy metals; concentrated solutions; membrane fouling wastewater treatment; membrane distillation; crystallization; heavy metals; concentrated solutions; membrane fouling
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MDPI and ACS Style

Lou, X.-Y.; Xu, Z.; Bai, A.-P.; Resina-Gallego, M.; Ji, Z.-G. Separation and Recycling of Concentrated Heavy Metal Wastewater by Tube Membrane Distillation Integrated with Crystallization. Membranes 2020, 10, 19.

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