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SARS-CoV-2 Genetic Variability and Non-Specific Immunity Associated with the Use of Different BCG Strains—A Molecular and Clinical Approach

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Department of Diagnostics and Clinical Sciences, Institute of Veterinary Medicine, Nicolaus Copernicus University in Torun, 87-100 Torun, Poland
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Department of Veterinary Surgery, Institute of Veterinary Medicine, Nicolaus Copernicus University in Torun, 87-100 Torun, Poland
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Department of Histology and Embryology, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, 60-781 Poznan, Poland
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Department of Public Health Protection and Animal Welfare, Institute of Veterinary Medicine, Nicolaus Copernicus University in Torun, 87-100 Torun, Poland
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Department of Toxicology, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, 60-631 Poznan, Poland
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Department of Basic and Preclinical Sciences, Institute of Veterinary Medicine, Nicolaus Copernicus University in Torun, 87-100 Torun, Poland
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Prestage Department of Poultry Science, College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695, USA
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Department of Anatomy, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, 60-781 Poznan, Poland
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Hatem A. Elshabrawy
Vaccines 2021, 9(6), 639; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9060639
Received: 24 May 2021 / Revised: 27 May 2021 / Accepted: 9 June 2021 / Published: 10 June 2021
The effect of BCG vaccination against tuberculosis on the reduction in COVID-19 infection is related to the effect of the BCG vaccine on the immunomodulation of non-specific immunity. In the early stages of the pandemic, countries with universal BCG vaccination programs registered a low number of new cases of COVID-19, with the situation now reversed, as exemplified by India. The high genetic variability of SARS-CoV-2, a known characteristic of RNA viruses, causing the occurrence of SARS-CoV-2 variants may have led to the virus adapting to overcome the initial immune protection. The strains from the United Kingdom (B1.1.7), Brazil (B1.1.28 and B1.1.33), South Africa (B.1.351), and India (B.1.617) are characterized by a greater ability to spread in the environment, in comparison with the original infectious agent of SARS-CoV-2. It should be remembered that the large variation in the genetic makeup of SARS-CoV-2 may result in future changes in its pathogenicity, immunogenicity and antigenicity, and therefore it is necessary to carefully study the mutations occurring within the virus to determine whether the current vaccines will remain effective. However, most studies show that monoclonal antibodies produced after vaccination against COVID-19 are effective against the newly developed variants. View Full-Text
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; BCG vaccinations; genetic variability; WHO recommendation; variants; tuberculosis SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; BCG vaccinations; genetic variability; WHO recommendation; variants; tuberculosis
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MDPI and ACS Style

Kulus, J.; Kulus, M.; Stefańska, K.; Sobolewski, J.; Piotrowska-Kempisty, H.; Mozdziak, P.; Kempisty, B. SARS-CoV-2 Genetic Variability and Non-Specific Immunity Associated with the Use of Different BCG Strains—A Molecular and Clinical Approach. Vaccines 2021, 9, 639. https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9060639

AMA Style

Kulus J, Kulus M, Stefańska K, Sobolewski J, Piotrowska-Kempisty H, Mozdziak P, Kempisty B. SARS-CoV-2 Genetic Variability and Non-Specific Immunity Associated with the Use of Different BCG Strains—A Molecular and Clinical Approach. Vaccines. 2021; 9(6):639. https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9060639

Chicago/Turabian Style

Kulus, Jakub, Magdalena Kulus, Katarzyna Stefańska, Jarosław Sobolewski, Hanna Piotrowska-Kempisty, Paul Mozdziak, and Bartosz Kempisty. 2021. "SARS-CoV-2 Genetic Variability and Non-Specific Immunity Associated with the Use of Different BCG Strains—A Molecular and Clinical Approach" Vaccines 9, no. 6: 639. https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9060639

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