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Article

Side Effects and Perceptions Following COVID-19 Vaccination in Jordan: A Randomized, Cross-Sectional Study Implementing Machine Learning for Predicting Severity of Side Effects

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Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences, Faculty of Applied Medical Sciences, The Hashemite University, Zarqa 13133, Jordan
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Department of Immunology, School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kubang Kerian, Kelantan 16150, Malaysia
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Department of Clinical Nutrition and Dietetics, Faculty of Applied Medical Sciences, The Hashemite University, Zarqa 13133, Jordan
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Prince Hamza Hospital, Amman 11947, Jordan
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Precision Medical Laboratory, Amman 11954, Jordan
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Faculty of Pharmacy, Zarqa University, Zarqa 13132, Jordan
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors provided equal first-author-level contribution.
Academic Editors: Efrat Neter and Karen Morgan
Vaccines 2021, 9(6), 556; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9060556
Received: 2 May 2021 / Revised: 20 May 2021 / Accepted: 20 May 2021 / Published: 26 May 2021
Background: Since the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was declared a pandemic, there was no doubt that vaccination is the ideal protocol to tackle it. Within a year, a few COVID-19 vaccines have been developed and authorized. This unparalleled initiative in developing vaccines created many uncertainties looming around the efficacy and safety of these vaccines. This study aimed to assess the side effects and perceptions following COVID-19 vaccination in Jordan. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted by distributing an online survey targeted toward Jordan inhabitants who received any COVID-19 vaccines. Data were statistically analyzed and certain machine learning (ML) tools, including multilayer perceptron (MLP), eXtreme gradient boosting (XGBoost), random forest (RF), and K-star were used to predict the severity of side effects. Results: A total of 2213 participants were involved in the study after receiving Sinopharm, AstraZeneca, Pfizer-BioNTech, and other vaccines (38.2%, 31%, 27.3%, and 3.5%, respectively). Generally, most of the post-vaccination side effects were common and non-life-threatening (e.g., fatigue, chills, dizziness, fever, headache, joint pain, and myalgia). Only 10% of participants suffered from severe side effects; while 39% and 21% of participants had moderate and mild side effects, respectively. Despite the substantial variations between these vaccines in the presence and severity of side effects, the statistical analysis indicated that these vaccines might provide the same protection against COVID-19 infection. Finally, around 52.9% of participants suffered before vaccination from vaccine hesitancy and anxiety; while after vaccination, 95.5% of participants have advised others to get vaccinated, 80% felt more reassured, and 67% believed that COVID-19 vaccines are safe in the long term. Furthermore, based on the type of vaccine, demographic data, and side effects, the RF, XGBoost, and MLP gave both high accuracies (0.80, 0.79, and 0.70, respectively) and Cohen’s kappa values (0.71, 0.70, and 0.56, respectively). Conclusions: The present study confirmed that the authorized COVID-19 vaccines are safe and getting vaccinated makes people more reassured. Most of the post-vaccination side effects are mild to moderate, which are signs that body’s immune system is building protection. ML can also be used to predict the severity of side effects based on the input data; predicted severe cases may require more medical attention or even hospitalization. View Full-Text
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2 vaccine; COVID-19 vaccine; post-vaccination symptoms; vaccine acceptance; vaccine hesitancy; vaccine anxiety; thrombocytopenia; thrombosis; blood clot; machine learning SARS-CoV-2 vaccine; COVID-19 vaccine; post-vaccination symptoms; vaccine acceptance; vaccine hesitancy; vaccine anxiety; thrombocytopenia; thrombosis; blood clot; machine learning
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MDPI and ACS Style

Hatmal, M.M.; Al-Hatamleh, M.A.I.; Olaimat, A.N.; Hatmal, M.; Alhaj-Qasem, D.M.; Olaimat, T.M.; Mohamud, R. Side Effects and Perceptions Following COVID-19 Vaccination in Jordan: A Randomized, Cross-Sectional Study Implementing Machine Learning for Predicting Severity of Side Effects. Vaccines 2021, 9, 556. https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9060556

AMA Style

Hatmal MM, Al-Hatamleh MAI, Olaimat AN, Hatmal M, Alhaj-Qasem DM, Olaimat TM, Mohamud R. Side Effects and Perceptions Following COVID-19 Vaccination in Jordan: A Randomized, Cross-Sectional Study Implementing Machine Learning for Predicting Severity of Side Effects. Vaccines. 2021; 9(6):556. https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9060556

Chicago/Turabian Style

Hatmal, Ma’mon M., Mohammad A.I. Al-Hatamleh, Amin N. Olaimat, Malik Hatmal, Dina M. Alhaj-Qasem, Tamadur M. Olaimat, and Rohimah Mohamud. 2021. "Side Effects and Perceptions Following COVID-19 Vaccination in Jordan: A Randomized, Cross-Sectional Study Implementing Machine Learning for Predicting Severity of Side Effects" Vaccines 9, no. 6: 556. https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9060556

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