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Article

Local Sustained GM-CSF Delivery by Genetically Engineered Encapsulated Cells Enhanced Both Cellular and Humoral SARS-CoV-2 Spike-Specific Immune Response in an Experimental Murine Spike DNA Vaccination Model

1
Department of Oncology, Geneva University Hospitals and Medical School, 1211 Geneva, Switzerland
2
Center for Translational Research in Onco-Hematology, Division of Oncology, Geneva University Hospitals and University of Geneva, 1211 Geneva, Switzerland
3
MaxiVAX SA, 1202 Geneva, Switzerland
4
Department of Basic Neurosciences, University of Geneva, 1211 Geneva, Switzerland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Ralph A. Tripp, Scott Anthony and Steven B. Bradfute
Vaccines 2021, 9(5), 484; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9050484
Received: 15 April 2021 / Revised: 4 May 2021 / Accepted: 5 May 2021 / Published: 10 May 2021
(This article belongs to the Collection COVID-19 Vaccines and Vaccination)
Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has caused a worldwide pandemic with recurrences. Therefore, finding a vaccine for this virus became a priority for the scientific community. The SARS-CoV-2 spike protein has been described as the keystone for viral entry into cells and effective immune protection against SARS-CoV-2 is elicited by this protein. Consequently, many commercialized vaccines focus on the spike protein and require the use of an optimal adjuvant during vaccination. Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) has demonstrated a powerful enhancement of acquired immunity against many pathogens when delivered in a sustained and local manner. In this context, we developed an encapsulated cell-based technology consisting of a biocompatible, semipermeable capsule for secretion of GM-CSF. In this study, we investigated whether murine GM-CSF (muGM-CSF) represents a suitable adjuvant for SARS-CoV-2 immunization, and which delivery strategy for muGM-CSF could be most beneficial. To test this, different groups of mice were immunized with intra-dermal (i.d.) electroporated spike DNA in the absence or presence of recombinant or secreted muGM-CSF. Results demonstrated that adjuvanting a spike DNA vaccine with secreted muGM-CSF resulted in enhancement of specific cellular and humoral immune responses against SARS-CoV-2. Our data also highlighted the importance of delivery strategies to the induction of cellular and humoral-mediated responses. View Full-Text
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; COVID 19; DNA vaccine; GM-CSF; adjuvant SARS-CoV-2; COVID 19; DNA vaccine; GM-CSF; adjuvant
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MDPI and ACS Style

Vernet, R.; Charrier, E.; Cosset, E.; Fièvre, S.; Tomasello, U.; Grogg, J.; Mach, N. Local Sustained GM-CSF Delivery by Genetically Engineered Encapsulated Cells Enhanced Both Cellular and Humoral SARS-CoV-2 Spike-Specific Immune Response in an Experimental Murine Spike DNA Vaccination Model. Vaccines 2021, 9, 484. https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9050484

AMA Style

Vernet R, Charrier E, Cosset E, Fièvre S, Tomasello U, Grogg J, Mach N. Local Sustained GM-CSF Delivery by Genetically Engineered Encapsulated Cells Enhanced Both Cellular and Humoral SARS-CoV-2 Spike-Specific Immune Response in an Experimental Murine Spike DNA Vaccination Model. Vaccines. 2021; 9(5):484. https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9050484

Chicago/Turabian Style

Vernet, Rémi, Emily Charrier, Erika Cosset, Sabine Fièvre, Ugo Tomasello, Julien Grogg, and Nicolas Mach. 2021. "Local Sustained GM-CSF Delivery by Genetically Engineered Encapsulated Cells Enhanced Both Cellular and Humoral SARS-CoV-2 Spike-Specific Immune Response in an Experimental Murine Spike DNA Vaccination Model" Vaccines 9, no. 5: 484. https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9050484

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