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Article

Quantifying the Persistence of Vaccine-Related T Cell Epitopes in Circulating Swine Influenza A Strains from 2013–2017

1
Department of Infectious Diseases, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602, USA
2
Center for Vaccines and Immunology, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602, USA
3
EpiVax Inc., Providence, RI 02909, USA
4
Department of Veterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011, USA
5
Roslin Institute, University of Edinburgh, Midlothian EH25 9RG, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Emanuele Montomoli and Claudia Maria Trombetta
Vaccines 2021, 9(5), 468; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9050468
Received: 12 March 2021 / Revised: 23 April 2021 / Accepted: 25 April 2021 / Published: 6 May 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Progress on Seasonal and Pandemic Influenza Vaccines)
When swine flu vaccines and circulating influenza A virus (IAV) strains are poorly matched, vaccine-induced antibodies may not protect from infection. Highly conserved T cell epitopes may, however, have a disease-mitigating effect. The degree of T cell epitope conservation among circulating strains and vaccine strains can vary, which may also explain differences in vaccine efficacy. Here, we evaluate a previously developed conserved T cell epitope-based vaccine and determine the persistence of T cell epitope conservation over time. We used a pair-wise homology score to define the conservation between the vaccine’s swine leukocyte antigen (SLA) class I and II-restricted epitopes and T cell epitopes found in 1272 swine IAV strains sequenced between 2013 and 2017. Twenty-four of the 48 total T cell epitopes included in the epitope-based vaccine were highly conserved and found in >1000 circulating swine IAV strains over the 5-year period. In contrast, commercial swine IAV vaccines developed in 2013 exhibited a declining conservation with the circulating IAV strains over the same 5-year period. Conserved T cell epitope vaccines may be a useful adjunct for commercial swine flu vaccines and to improve protection against influenza when antibodies are not cross-reactive. View Full-Text
Keywords: swine IAV; immunoinformatics; T cell epitope conservation swine IAV; immunoinformatics; T cell epitope conservation
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MDPI and ACS Style

Tan, S.; Gutiérrez, A.H.; Gauger, P.C.; Opriessnig, T.; Bahl, J.; Moise, L.; De Groot, A.S. Quantifying the Persistence of Vaccine-Related T Cell Epitopes in Circulating Swine Influenza A Strains from 2013–2017. Vaccines 2021, 9, 468. https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9050468

AMA Style

Tan S, Gutiérrez AH, Gauger PC, Opriessnig T, Bahl J, Moise L, De Groot AS. Quantifying the Persistence of Vaccine-Related T Cell Epitopes in Circulating Swine Influenza A Strains from 2013–2017. Vaccines. 2021; 9(5):468. https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9050468

Chicago/Turabian Style

Tan, Swan, Andres H. Gutiérrez, Phillip C. Gauger, Tanja Opriessnig, Justin Bahl, Leonard Moise, and Anne S. De Groot. 2021. "Quantifying the Persistence of Vaccine-Related T Cell Epitopes in Circulating Swine Influenza A Strains from 2013–2017" Vaccines 9, no. 5: 468. https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9050468

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