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Vaccines 2019, 7(1), 9; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines7010009

Novel Protein-Based Pneumococcal Vaccines: Assessing the Use of Distinct Protein Fragments Instead of Full-Length Proteins as Vaccine Antigens

1
First Department of Paediatrics, “Aghia Sophia” Children’s Hospital, Immunobiology Research Laboratory and Infectious Diseases Department “MAKKA,” Athens Medical School, 11527 Athens, Greece
2
Department of Microbiology, Athens Medical School, 11527 Athens, Greece
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 30 November 2018 / Revised: 15 January 2019 / Accepted: 16 January 2019 / Published: 19 January 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vaccines for Pneumococcal Infections)
Full-Text   |   PDF [3525 KB, uploaded 19 January 2019]   |   Review Reports

Abstract

Non-serotype-specific protein-based pneumococcal vaccines have received extensive research focus due to the limitations of polysaccharide-based vaccines. Pneumococcal proteins (PnPs), universally expressed among serotypes, may induce broader immune responses, stimulating humoral and cellular immunity, while being easier to manufacture and less expensive. Such an approach has raised issues mainly associated with sequence/level of expression variability, chemical instability, as well as possible undesirable reactogenicity and autoimmune properties. A step forward employs the identification of highly-conserved antigenic regions within PnPs with the potential to retain the benefits of protein antigens. Besides, their low-cost and stable construction facilitates the combination of several antigenic regions or peptides that may impair different stages of pneumococcal disease offering even wider serotype coverage and more efficient protection. This review discusses the up-to-date progress on PnPs that are currently under clinical evaluation and the challenges for their licensure. Focus is given on the progress on the identification of antigenic regions/peptides within PnPs and their evaluation as vaccine candidates, accessing their potential to overcome the issues associated with full-length protein antigens. Particular mention is given of the use of newer delivery system technologies including conjugation to Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and reformulation into nanoparticles to enhance the poor immunogenicity of such antigens. View Full-Text
Keywords: protein-based pneumococcal vaccines; peptide antigens; vaccine adjuvants protein-based pneumococcal vaccines; peptide antigens; vaccine adjuvants
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Lagousi, T.; Basdeki, P.; Routsias, J.; Spoulou, V. Novel Protein-Based Pneumococcal Vaccines: Assessing the Use of Distinct Protein Fragments Instead of Full-Length Proteins as Vaccine Antigens. Vaccines 2019, 7, 9.

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