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Vaccines 2019, 7(1), 10;

Time to Micromanage the Pathogen-Host-Vector Interface: Considerations for Vaccine Development

Laboratory of Malaria and Vector Research, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Phnom Penh 12201, Cambodia
Immunology Unit, Institut Pasteur du Cambodge, Institut Pasteur International Network, Phnom Penh 12201, Cambodia
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 31 October 2018 / Revised: 10 January 2019 / Accepted: 16 January 2019 / Published: 21 January 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pathogen-Host Interactions: Implications for Vaccine Design)
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The current increase in vector-borne disease worldwide necessitates novel approaches to vaccine development targeted to pathogens delivered by blood-feeding arthropod vectors into the host skin. A concept that is gaining traction in recent years is the contribution of the vector or vector-derived components, like salivary proteins, to host-pathogen interactions. Indeed, the triad of vector-host-pathogen interactions in the skin microenvironment can influence host innate and adaptive responses alike, providing an advantage to the pathogen to establish infection. A better understanding of this “bite site” microenvironment, along with how host and vector local microbiomes immunomodulate responses to pathogens, is required for future vaccines for vector-borne diseases. Microneedle administration of such vaccines may more closely mimic vector deposition of pathogen and saliva into the skin with the added benefit of near painless vaccine delivery. Focusing on the ‘micro’–from microenvironments to microbiomes to microneedles–may yield an improved generation of vector-borne disease vaccines in today’s increasingly complex world. View Full-Text
Keywords: vector-borne disease; saliva; tissue-resident memory cells; mosquito; tick; sandfly vector-borne disease; saliva; tissue-resident memory cells; mosquito; tick; sandfly

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Manning, J.E.; Cantaert, T. Time to Micromanage the Pathogen-Host-Vector Interface: Considerations for Vaccine Development. Vaccines 2019, 7, 10.

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