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Vaccines 2019, 7(1), 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines7010011

T-Cell Response to Viral Hemorrhagic Fevers

1
Grupo Inmunovirología, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín 050010, Colombia
2
Institute of Human Virology, School of Medicine, University of Maryland; Baltimore, MD 21201, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 18 December 2018 / Revised: 15 January 2019 / Accepted: 19 January 2019 / Published: 22 January 2019
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Abstract

Viral hemorrhagic fevers (VHF) are a group of clinically similar diseases that can be caused by enveloped RNA viruses primarily from the families Arenaviridae, Filoviridae, Hantaviridae, and Flaviviridae. Clinically, this group of diseases has in common fever, fatigue, dizziness, muscle aches, and other associated symptoms that can progress to vascular leakage, bleeding and multi-organ failure. Most of these viruses are zoonotic causing asymptomatic infections in the primary host, but in human beings, the infection can be lethal. Clinical and experimental evidence suggest that the T-cell response is needed for protection against VHF, but can also cause damage to the host, and play an important role in disease pathogenesis. Here, we present a review of the T-cell immune responses to VHF and insights into the possible ways to improve counter-measures for these viral agents. View Full-Text
Keywords: viral hemorrhagic fever; lassa virus; ebola virus; hantavirus; yellow fever virus; dengue virus; T-cells; vaccine; interferon-gamma; tumor necrosis factor-alpha viral hemorrhagic fever; lassa virus; ebola virus; hantavirus; yellow fever virus; dengue virus; T-cells; vaccine; interferon-gamma; tumor necrosis factor-alpha
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Perdomo-Celis, F.; Salvato, M.S.; Medina-Moreno, S.; Zapata, J.C. T-Cell Response to Viral Hemorrhagic Fevers. Vaccines 2019, 7, 11.

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