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Interests of the Non-Human Primate Models for HIV Cure Research
 
 
Article

Ex Vivo Evaluation of Mucosal Responses to Vaccination with ALVAC and AIDSVAX of Non-Human Primates

1
Department of Medicine, Imperial College London, London W2 1PG, UK
2
Tulane National Primate Research Center, School of Medicine, Tulane University, Covington, GA 70433, USA
3
Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA
4
US Military HIV Research Program, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, Silver Spring, MA 20817, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Current address: International Vaccine Institute, Seoul 08826, Korea.
Academic Editors: Moriya Tsuji and Beatrice Jacquelin
Vaccines 2022, 10(2), 187; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10020187
Received: 16 December 2021 / Revised: 21 January 2022 / Accepted: 23 January 2022 / Published: 25 January 2022
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Non-human Primate Research in Immune Modulation and Drug Discovery)
Non-human primates (NHPs) remain the most relevant challenge model for the evaluation of HIV vaccine candidates; however, discrepancies with clinical trial results have emphasized the need to further refine the NHP model. Furthermore, classical evaluation of vaccine candidates is based on endpoints measured systemically. We assessed the mucosal responses elicited upon vaccination with ALVAC and AIDSVAX using ex vivo Rhesus macaque mucosal tissue explant models. Following booster immunization with ALVAC/AIDSVAX, anti-gp120 HIV-1CM244-specific IgG and IgA were detected in culture supernatant cervicovaginal and colorectal tissue explants, as well as systemically. Despite protection from ex vivo viral challenge, no neutralization was observed with tissue explant culture supernatants. Priming with ALVAC induced distinct cytokine profiles in cervical and rectal tissue. However, ALVAC/AIDSVAX boosts resulted in similar modulations in both mucosal tissues with a statistically significant decrease in cytokines linked to inflammatory responses and lymphocyte differentiation. With ALVAC/AIDSVAX boosts, significant correlations were observed between cytokine levels and specific IgA in cervical explants and specific IgG and IgA in rectal tissue. The cytokine secretome revealed differences between vaccination with ALVAC and ALVAC/AIDSVAX not previously observed in mucosal tissues and distinct from the systemic response, which could represent a biosignature of the vaccine combination. View Full-Text
Keywords: vaccine; mucosal immunology; HIV-1 vaccine; mucosal immunology; HIV-1
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MDPI and ACS Style

Herrera, C.; Veazey, R.; Lemke, M.M.; Arnold, K.; Kim, J.H.; Shattock, R.J. Ex Vivo Evaluation of Mucosal Responses to Vaccination with ALVAC and AIDSVAX of Non-Human Primates. Vaccines 2022, 10, 187. https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10020187

AMA Style

Herrera C, Veazey R, Lemke MM, Arnold K, Kim JH, Shattock RJ. Ex Vivo Evaluation of Mucosal Responses to Vaccination with ALVAC and AIDSVAX of Non-Human Primates. Vaccines. 2022; 10(2):187. https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10020187

Chicago/Turabian Style

Herrera, Carolina, Ronald Veazey, Melissa M. Lemke, Kelly Arnold, Jerome H. Kim, and Robin J. Shattock. 2022. "Ex Vivo Evaluation of Mucosal Responses to Vaccination with ALVAC and AIDSVAX of Non-Human Primates" Vaccines 10, no. 2: 187. https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10020187

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