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Article

Antioxidants and Oxidative Stress in Children: Influence of Puberty and Metabolically Unhealthy Status

1
GENUD Research Group, Instituto Agroalimentario de Aragón (IA2), Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria (IIS) Aragón, University of Zaragoza, 50013 Zaragoza, Spain
2
Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology II, Institute of Nutrition and Food Technology “José Mataix”, Center of Biomedical Research, University of Granada, Armilla, 18016 Granada, Spain
3
Instituto de Investigación Biosanitaria ibs, 18014 Granada, Spain
4
CIBEROBN, (Physiopathology of Obesity and Nutrition Network) Institute of Health Carlos III (ISCIII), 28029 Madrid, Spain
5
Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition Unit. Pediatric Department, Clinic University Hospital of Santiago, Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria de Santiago (IDIS), 15706 Santiago de Compostela, Spain
6
Metabolism and Investigation Unit, Reina Sofia University Hospital, Maimónides Institute of Biomedicine Research of Córdoba (IMIBIC), University of Córdoba, 14004 Córdoba, Spain
7
Unit of Investigation in Nutrition, Growth and Human Development of Galicia, Pediatric Department, University of Santiago de Compostela, 15782 Santiago de Compostela, Spain
8
Pediatric Endocrinology Unit, Clinic University Hospital Lozano Blesa, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Zaragoza, 50009 Zaragoza, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Antioxidants 2020, 9(7), 618; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9070618
Received: 4 June 2020 / Revised: 1 July 2020 / Accepted: 13 July 2020 / Published: 15 July 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oxidative Stress and Inflammation in Health and Diseases)
Oxidative stress could help explain the relationship between childhood obesity and a metabolically unhealthy (MU) status. Moreover, puberty could also influence this relationship, since it entails physiological cardiometabolic changes. We aimed to evaluate plasma antioxidants and oxidative stress biomarkers in MU and metabolically healthy (MH) prepubertal and pubertal children and their associations with pro-inflammatory and endothelial damage biomarkers, taking puberty into account. A total of 1444 Spanish children aged 3–17 years (48.9% males, 66% prepubertal, 47.1% with obesity) were recruited. Blood pressure, anthropometric and biochemical parameters were measured, and children were categorized as having a MU or MH status according to risk factors. Retinol, carotenes, tocopherols, total antioxidant capacity (TAC), oxidized low-density lipoprotein and selected pro-inflammatory and endothelial damage biomarkers were analyzed. General linear models adjusted for age, sex, recruitment center and body mass index, partial correlations and stepwise linear regressions were performed. Lower carotenes and tocopherols levels were found in MU than in MH children. Plasma TAC was lower in prepubertal and higher in pubertal children with obesity compared to normal-weight children. Antioxidants and oxidative stress biomarkers showed novel associations with several pro-inflammatory and endothelial damage biomarkers, with pubertal differences, supporting the importance of considering both the antioxidant and oxidative stress status and puberty in the prevention of metabolic diseases in childhood. View Full-Text
Keywords: carotenoids; tocopherols; oxidized low-density lipoprotein; inflammatory biomarkers; childhood obesity; metabolically healthy; metabolic syndrome carotenoids; tocopherols; oxidized low-density lipoprotein; inflammatory biomarkers; childhood obesity; metabolically healthy; metabolic syndrome
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MDPI and ACS Style

Rupérez, A.I.; Mesa, M.D.; Anguita-Ruiz, A.; González-Gil, E.M.; Vázquez-Cobela, R.; Moreno, L.A.; Gil, Á.; Gil-Campos, M.; Leis, R.; Bueno, G.; Aguilera, C.M. Antioxidants and Oxidative Stress in Children: Influence of Puberty and Metabolically Unhealthy Status. Antioxidants 2020, 9, 618. https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9070618

AMA Style

Rupérez AI, Mesa MD, Anguita-Ruiz A, González-Gil EM, Vázquez-Cobela R, Moreno LA, Gil Á, Gil-Campos M, Leis R, Bueno G, Aguilera CM. Antioxidants and Oxidative Stress in Children: Influence of Puberty and Metabolically Unhealthy Status. Antioxidants. 2020; 9(7):618. https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9070618

Chicago/Turabian Style

Rupérez, Azahara I., María D. Mesa, Augusto Anguita-Ruiz, Esther M. González-Gil, Rocío Vázquez-Cobela, Luis A. Moreno, Ángel Gil, Mercedes Gil-Campos, Rosaura Leis, Gloria Bueno, and Concepción M. Aguilera. 2020. "Antioxidants and Oxidative Stress in Children: Influence of Puberty and Metabolically Unhealthy Status" Antioxidants 9, no. 7: 618. https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9070618

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