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Open AccessArticle

Schisandra rubriflora Plant Material and In Vitro Microshoot Cultures as Rich Sources of Natural Phenolic Antioxidants

1
Chair and Department of Pharmaceutical Botany, Jagiellonian University, Medical College, ul. Medyczna 9, 30-688 Kraków, Poland
2
Polish Academy of Sciences, The Franciszek Górski Institute of Plant Physiology, ul. Niezapominajek 21, 30-239 Kraków, Poland
3
Department of Pharmacognosy and Molecular Basis and Phytotherapy, Medical University of Warsaw, ul. Banacha 1, 02-097 Warszawa, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Antioxidants 2020, 9(6), 488; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9060488
Received: 19 May 2020 / Revised: 31 May 2020 / Accepted: 1 June 2020 / Published: 4 June 2020
Schisandra rubriflora is a dioecious, underestimated medicinal plant species known from traditional Chinese medicine. The present study was aimed at characterising the polyphenolic profile composition and the related antioxidant capacity of S. rubriflora fruit, stem and leaf and in vitro microshoot culture extracts. Separate analyses of material from female and male specimens were carried out. This study was specifically aimed at detailed characterisation of the contribution of phenolic compounds to overall antioxidant activity using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography with a photodiode array detector coupled to electrospray ionization ion trap mass spectrometry (UHPLC-DAD-ESI-MS3) and a high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector (HPLC-DAD). Using UHPLC-DAD-ESI-MS3, twenty-seven phenolic compounds from among phenolic acids and flavonoids were identified. Concentrations of three phenolic acids (neochlorogenic, chlorogenic and cryptochlorogenic acids) and eight flavonoids (hyperoside, rutoside, isoquercitrin, guaijaverin, trifolin, quercetin, kaempferol, and isorhamnetin) were determined using HPLC-DAD using reference standards. The highest total phenolic content was confirmed for the stem and leaf extracts collected in spring. The contents of phenolic compounds of in vitro biomasses were comparable to that in the fruit extracts. The methanolic extracts from the studied plant materials were evaluated for their antioxidant properties using various in vitro assays, namely free radicals scavenging estimation using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl-hydrate (DPPH), ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and cupric-reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC) as well as QUick, Easy, New, CHEap, and Reproducible CUPRAC (QUENCHER-CUPRAC) assays. A close relationship between the content of polyphenolic compounds in S. rubriflora and their antioxidant potential has been documented. View Full-Text
Keywords: red-flowered Chinese magnolia vine; in vitro cultures; plant biotechnology; UHPLC-DAD-ESI-MS3; HPLC-DAD; ROS scavenging activity; phenolic acids; flavonoids; polyphenols; antioxidants red-flowered Chinese magnolia vine; in vitro cultures; plant biotechnology; UHPLC-DAD-ESI-MS3; HPLC-DAD; ROS scavenging activity; phenolic acids; flavonoids; polyphenols; antioxidants
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Szopa, A.; Dziurka, M.; Granica, S.; Klimek-Szczykutowicz, M.; Kubica, P.; Warzecha, A.; Jafernik, K.; Ekiert, H. Schisandra rubriflora Plant Material and In Vitro Microshoot Cultures as Rich Sources of Natural Phenolic Antioxidants. Antioxidants 2020, 9, 488.

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