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Article

The Kinetics of Total Phenolic Content and Monomeric Flavan-3-ols during the Roasting Process of Criollo Cocoa

1
Programa Académico de Ingeniería Agroindustrial, Facultad de Ingeniería y Ciencias Agrarias, Universidad Nacional Toribio Rodríguez de Mendoza de Amazonas, Calle Higos Urco 342-350-356, Chachapoyas, Amazonas, Peru
2
Instituto de Investigación, Innovación y Desarrollo para el Sector Agrario y Agroindustrial de la Región Amazonas (IIDAA-Amazonas), Facultad de Ingeniería y Ciencias Agrarias, Universidad Nacional Toribio Rodríguez de Mendoza de Amazonas, Calle Higos Urco 342-350-356, Chachapoyas, Amazonas, Peru
3
Facultad de Ciencias Agropecuarias, Universidad Nacional de Trujillo, Av. Juan Pablo II s/n, Ciudad Universitaria, Trujillo 13001, Peru
4
Sección de Ingeniería Industrial, Departamento de Ingeniería, Pontificia Universidad Católica del Perú, Av. Universitaria 1801, San Miguel 150136, Lima 32, Peru
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Antioxidants 2020, 9(2), 146; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9020146
Received: 27 November 2019 / Revised: 15 January 2020 / Accepted: 15 January 2020 / Published: 9 February 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidants in Cocoa)
Cocoa beans are the main raw material for the manufacture of chocolate and are currently gaining great importance due to their antioxidant potential attributed to the total phenolic content (TPC) and the monomeric flavan-3-ols (epicatechin and catechin). The objective of this study was to determine the degradation kinetics parameters of TPC, epicatechin, and catechin during the roasting process of Criollo cocoa for 10, 20, 30, 40, and 50 min at 90, 110, 130, 150, 170, 190, and 200 °C. The results showed a lower degradation of TPC (10.98 ± 6.04%) and epicatechin (8.05 ± 3.01%) at 130 °C and 10 min of roasting, while a total degradation of epicatechin and a 92.29 ± 0.06% degradation of TPC was obtained at 200 °C and 50 min. Reaction rate constant ( k ) and activation energy ( E a ) were 0.02–0.10 min−1 and 24.03 J/mol for TPC and 0.02–0.13 min−1 and 22.51 J/mol for epicatechin, respectively. Degradation kinetics of TPC and epicatechin showed first-order reactions, while the catechin showed patterns of formation and degradation. View Full-Text
Keywords: roasting; catechin; epicatechin; total phenolic content; Criollo cocoa; kinetic roasting; catechin; epicatechin; total phenolic content; Criollo cocoa; kinetic
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MDPI and ACS Style

Fernández-Romero, E.; Chavez-Quintana, S.G.; Siche, R.; Castro-Alayo, E.M.; Cardenas-Toro, F.P. The Kinetics of Total Phenolic Content and Monomeric Flavan-3-ols during the Roasting Process of Criollo Cocoa. Antioxidants 2020, 9, 146. https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9020146

AMA Style

Fernández-Romero E, Chavez-Quintana SG, Siche R, Castro-Alayo EM, Cardenas-Toro FP. The Kinetics of Total Phenolic Content and Monomeric Flavan-3-ols during the Roasting Process of Criollo Cocoa. Antioxidants. 2020; 9(2):146. https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9020146

Chicago/Turabian Style

Fernández-Romero, Editha, Segundo G. Chavez-Quintana, Raúl Siche, Efraín M. Castro-Alayo, and Fiorella P. Cardenas-Toro. 2020. "The Kinetics of Total Phenolic Content and Monomeric Flavan-3-ols during the Roasting Process of Criollo Cocoa" Antioxidants 9, no. 2: 146. https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9020146

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