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Article

Betaine and Isoquinoline Alkaloids Protect against Heat Stress and Colonic Permeability in Growing Pigs

1
Faculty of Veterinary and Agricultural Sciences, The University of Melbourne, Parkville, VIC 3010, Australia
2
Faculty of Animal Sciences, Vietnam National University of Agriculture, Trau Quy, Gia Lam, Hanoi 131004, Vietnam
3
Florey Institute of Neuroscience and Mental Health, The University of Melbourne, Parkville, VIC 3010, Australia
4
Department of Anatomy and Neuroscience, The University of Melbourne, Parkville, VIC 3010, Australia
5
Faculty of Biological Sciences, The University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT, UK
6
Phytobiotics Futterzusatzstoffe GmbH, D-65343 Eltville, Germany
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Antioxidants 2020, 9(10), 1024; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9101024
Received: 10 September 2020 / Revised: 16 October 2020 / Accepted: 19 October 2020 / Published: 21 October 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidants in Veterinary Medicine)
Heat stress (HS) compromises productivity of pork production, in part as a result of increased oxidative stress and inflammatory responses, particularly within the gastrointestinal tract. This study aimed to investigate whether plant-derived betaine and isoquinoline alkaloids could ameliorate HS in pigs. Fifty female Large White × Landrace grower pigs, which were acclimated to control (CON), control plus betaine (BET), or control plus isoquinoline alkaloids (IQA) diets for 14 days were then exposed to heat stress or thermoneutral condition. Both BET and IQA partially ameliorated increases in respiration rate (p = 0.013) and rectal temperature (p = 0.001) associated with HS conditions. Heat stress increased salivary cortisol concentrations and reduced plasma creatinine, lactate, and thyroid hormone concentrations. Heat stress increased colon FD4 permeability, which was reduced by IQA (p = 0.030). Heat stress increased inflammation in the jejunum and ileum, as indicated by elevated interleukin-1β (p = 0.022) in the jejunum and interleukin-1β (p = 0.004) and interleukin-8 (p = 0.001) in the ileum. No differences in plasma total antioxidant capacity (TAC) were observed with HS, but betaine increased plasma TAC compared to IQA. Dietary BET increased betaine concentrations in the jejunum, ileum (p < 0.001 for both), plasma, liver, kidney (p < 0.010 for all), urine (p = 0.002) and tended to be higher in muscle (p = 0.084). Betaine concentration was not influenced by HS, but it tended to be higher in plasma and accumulated in the liver. These data suggest that betaine and isoquinoline alkaloids supplementation ameliorated consequences of heat stress in grower pigs and protected against HS induced increases in colonic permeability. View Full-Text
Keywords: heat stress; alkaloids; betaine; antioxidants; permeability; gut health; thermoregulation heat stress; alkaloids; betaine; antioxidants; permeability; gut health; thermoregulation
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MDPI and ACS Style

Le, H.H.; Shakeri, M.; Suleria, H.A.R.; Zhao, W.; McQuade, R.M.; Phillips, D.J.; Vidacs, E.; Furness, J.B.; Dunshea, F.R.; Artuso-Ponte, V.; Cottrell, J.J. Betaine and Isoquinoline Alkaloids Protect against Heat Stress and Colonic Permeability in Growing Pigs. Antioxidants 2020, 9, 1024. https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9101024

AMA Style

Le HH, Shakeri M, Suleria HAR, Zhao W, McQuade RM, Phillips DJ, Vidacs E, Furness JB, Dunshea FR, Artuso-Ponte V, Cottrell JJ. Betaine and Isoquinoline Alkaloids Protect against Heat Stress and Colonic Permeability in Growing Pigs. Antioxidants. 2020; 9(10):1024. https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9101024

Chicago/Turabian Style

Le, Hieu H., Majid Shakeri, Hafiz A.R. Suleria, Weicheng Zhao, Rachel M. McQuade, Deborah J. Phillips, Eva Vidacs, John B. Furness, Frank R. Dunshea, Valeria Artuso-Ponte, and Jeremy J. Cottrell 2020. "Betaine and Isoquinoline Alkaloids Protect against Heat Stress and Colonic Permeability in Growing Pigs" Antioxidants 9, no. 10: 1024. https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9101024

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