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Open AccessArticle

In Vitro Digestion of Human Milk: Influence of the Lactation Stage on the Micellar Carotenoids Content

1
Food Phytochemistry Department, Instituto de la Grasa (CSIC), Campus Universitario, Building 46, 41013 Sevilla, Spain
2
Unidad de Neonatología, Hospital Virgen del Rocío, 41013 Sevilla, Spain
3
Institute of Food Science Research (CSIC-UAM), 28049 Madrid, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Antioxidants 2019, 8(8), 291; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox8080291
Received: 29 June 2019 / Revised: 5 August 2019 / Accepted: 6 August 2019 / Published: 7 August 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carotenoids)
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Abstract

Human milk is a complex fluid with nutritive and non-nutritive functions specifically structured to cover the needs of the newborn. The present study started with the study of carotenoid composition during progress of lactation (colostrum, collected at 3–5 d postpartum; mature milk, collected at 30 d postpartum) with samples donated from full-term lactating mothers (women with no chronic diseases, nonsmokers on a regular diet without supplements, n = 30). Subsequently, we applied an in vitro protocol to determine the micellarization efficiency of the carotenoids, which were separated by HPLC and quantified by the external standard method. That in vitro protocol is tailored for the biochemistry of the digestive tract of a newborn. To the best of our knowledge, the present study is the first report of carotenoids micellar contents, obtained in vitro. This study reveals, from the in vitro perspective, that colostrum and mature milk produce significant micellar contents of carotenoids despite lipids in milk are within highly complex structures. Indeed, the lactation period develops some influence on the micellarization efficiency, influence that might be attributed to the dynamics of the milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) during the progress of lactation. View Full-Text
Keywords: breastfeeding; newborn; human colostrum; carotenes and xanthophylls; in vitro digestibility; micellar lipids breastfeeding; newborn; human colostrum; carotenes and xanthophylls; in vitro digestibility; micellar lipids
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Xavier, A.A.O.; Garrido-López, J.E.; Aguayo-Maldonado, J.; Garrido-Fernández, J.; Fontecha, J.; Pérez-Gálvez, A. In Vitro Digestion of Human Milk: Influence of the Lactation Stage on the Micellar Carotenoids Content. Antioxidants 2019, 8, 291.

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