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Open AccessArticle

Evaluation of the Influence of Process Parameters on the Properties of Resveratrol-Loaded NLC Using 22 Full Factorial Design

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Department of Engineering of Materials and Bioprocesses-School of Chemical Engineering, University of Campinas, Campinas 13083-970, Brazil
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Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Coimbra, 3000-548 Coimbra, Portugal
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CQ Pharma, (FFUC), Pólo das Ciências da Saúde, Azinhaga de Santa Comba, 3000-548 Coimbra, Portugal
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Department of Pharmacy, Pharmaceutical Technology and Physical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, and Institute of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology (IN2UB), University of Barcelona, 08007 Barcelona, Spain
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Networking Research Centre of Neurodegenerative Disease (CIBERNED), Instituto de Salud Juan Carlos III, 28049 Madrid, Spain
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CEB-Centre of Biological Engineering, University of Minho, Campus de Gualtar, 4710-057 Braga, Portugal
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Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Antioxidants 2019, 8(8), 272; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox8080272
Received: 17 July 2019 / Revised: 28 July 2019 / Accepted: 30 July 2019 / Published: 3 August 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Phenolic Compounds for Health, Food and Cosmetic Applications)
Resveratrol (RSV) is a natural antioxidant commonly found in grapes, berries, and nuts that has shown promising results in the treatment of a variety of degenerative and age-related diseases. Despite the proven beneficial results on reduction of reactive oxidant species (ROS) and on inflammatory process, RSV shows various limitations including low long-term stability, aqueous solubility, and bioavailability, restricting its applications in the medical-pharmaceutical area. To overcome these limitations, it has been applied in pharmaceutical formulations as nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC). Thus, the present study focuses on the optimization of the production process of NLC. NLC was produced by high shear homogenization (HSH) and ultrasound method (US) using Compritol® ATO C888 as solid lipid and Miglyol 812® as liquid lipid. In order to obtain an optimized formulation, we used a 22 full factorial design with triplicate of central point investigating the effects of the production process parameters; shear intensity and homogenization time, on the mean particle size (PS) and polydispersity index (PDI). Instability index, encapsulation efficiency, and production yield were also evaluated. As the PS and PDI values obtained with 6 min of shear at 19,000 rpm and 10 min of shear and 24,000 rpm were similar, the instability index (<0.1) was also used to select the optimal parameters. Based on the results of the experimental design and instability index, it was concluded that the shear rate of 19,000 rpm and the shear time of 6 min are the optimal parameters for RSV-loaded NLC production. Factorial design contributed therefore to optimize the variables of the NLC production process from a small number of experiments. View Full-Text
Keywords: resveratrol; nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC); factorial design; high shear homogenization; ultrasound method resveratrol; nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC); factorial design; high shear homogenization; ultrasound method
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Shimojo, A.A.M.; Fernandes, A.R.V.; Ferreira, N.R.E.; Sanchez-Lopez, E.; Santana, M.H.A.; Souto, E.B. Evaluation of the Influence of Process Parameters on the Properties of Resveratrol-Loaded NLC Using 22 Full Factorial Design. Antioxidants 2019, 8, 272.

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