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Astrocytic Oxidative/Nitrosative Stress Contributes to Parkinson’s Disease Pathogenesis: The Dual Role of Reactive Astrocytes

1
Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy Florida A&M University, Tallahassee, FL 32301, USA
2
Department of Molecular Pharmacology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine Bronx, New York, NY 10461, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Antioxidants 2019, 8(8), 265; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox8080265
Received: 25 June 2019 / Revised: 23 July 2019 / Accepted: 30 July 2019 / Published: 1 August 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oxidative and Nitrosative Stress in Astrocytes)
Parkinson’s disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disease worldwide; it is characterized by dopaminergic neurodegeneration in the substantia nigra pars compacta, but its etiology is not fully understood. Astrocytes, a class of glial cells in the central nervous system (CNS), provide critical structural and metabolic support to neurons, but growing evidence reveals that astrocytic oxidative and nitrosative stress contributes to PD pathogenesis. As astrocytes play a critical role in the production of antioxidants and the detoxification of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS/RNS), astrocytic oxidative/nitrosative stress has emerged as a critical mediator of the etiology of PD. Cellular stress and inflammation induce reactive astrogliosis, which initiates the production of astrocytic ROS/RNS and may lead to oxidative/nitrosative stress and PD pathogenesis. Although the cause of aberrant reactive astrogliosis is unknown, gene mutations and environmental toxicants may also contribute to astrocytic oxidative/nitrosative stress. In this review, we briefly discuss the physiological functions of astrocytes and the role of astrocytic oxidative/nitrosative stress in PD pathogenesis. Additionally, we examine the impact of PD-related genes such as α-synuclein, protein deglycase DJ-1( DJ-1), Parkin, and PTEN-induced kinase 1 (PINK1) on astrocytic function, and highlight the impact of environmental toxicants, such as 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP), rotenone, manganese, and paraquat, on astrocytic oxidative/nitrosative stress in experimental models. View Full-Text
Keywords: astrocytes; oxidative stress; nitrosative stress; parkinson’s disease; neurological disorders astrocytes; oxidative stress; nitrosative stress; parkinson’s disease; neurological disorders
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Rizor, A.; Pajarillo, E.; Johnson, J.; Aschner, M.; Lee, E. Astrocytic Oxidative/Nitrosative Stress Contributes to Parkinson’s Disease Pathogenesis: The Dual Role of Reactive Astrocytes. Antioxidants 2019, 8, 265.

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