Next Article in Journal
Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Properties of Nigella sativa Oil in Human Pre-Adipocytes
Next Article in Special Issue
Juglone in Oxidative Stress and Cell Signaling
Previous Article in Journal
A Single-Dose of a Polyphenol-Rich Fucus Vesiculosus Extract is Insufficient to Blunt the Elevated Postprandial Blood Glucose Responses Exhibited by Healthy Adults in the Evening: A Randomised Crossover Trial
Previous Article in Special Issue
Effects of Bcl-2/Bcl-xL Inhibitors on Pulmonary Artery Smooth Muscle Cells
Open AccessReview

Oxidant-Mediated Protein Amino Acid Conversion

Department of Pharmacology and Physiology, Georgetown University Medical Center, Washington, DC 20007, USA
Antioxidants 2019, 8(2), 50;
Received: 9 February 2019 / Revised: 20 February 2019 / Accepted: 25 February 2019 / Published: 25 February 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Aspects of Redox, Antioxidant and Mitochondrial Signaling)
Biological oxidation plays important roles in the pathogenesis of various diseases and aging. Carbonylation is one mode of protein oxidation. It has been reported that amino acids that are susceptible to carbonylation are arginine (Arg), proline (Pro), lysine, and threonine residues. The carbonylation product of both Arg and Pro residues is glutamyl semialdehyde. While chemically the oxidation reactions of neither Pro to glutamyl semialdehyde nor Arg to glutamyl semialdehyde are reversible, experimental results from our laboratory suggest that the biological system may drive the reduction of glutamyl semialdehyde to Pro in the protein structure. Further, glutamyl semialdehyde can be oxidized to become glutamic acid (Glu). Therefore, I hypothesize that biological oxidation post-translationally converts Arg to Pro, Arg to Glu, and Pro to Glu within the protein structure. Our mass spectrometry experiments provided evidence that, in human cells, 5–10% of peroxiredoxin 6 protein molecules have Pro-45 replaced by Glu. This concept of protein amino acid conversion challenges the dogma that amino acid sequences are strictly defined by nucleic acid sequences. I propose that, in the biological system, amino acid replacements can occur post-translationally through redox regulation, and protein molecules with non-DNA coding sequences confer functions. View Full-Text
Keywords: amino acid; carbonylation; oxidation; protein; reactive oxygen species; redox amino acid; carbonylation; oxidation; protein; reactive oxygen species; redox
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Suzuki, Y.J. Oxidant-Mediated Protein Amino Acid Conversion. Antioxidants 2019, 8, 50.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

Search more from Scilit
Back to TopTop