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Open AccessArticle

Polyphenols from Lycium barbarum (Goji) Fruit European Cultivars at Different Maturation Steps: Extraction, HPLC-DAD Analyses, and Biological Evaluation

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Department of Pharmaceutical Botany, “Iuliu Haţieganu” University of Medicine and Pharmacy, 23 Gheorghe Marinescu Street, 400337 Cluj-Napoca, Romania
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Laboratory of Chromatography, Institute of Advanced Horticulture Research of Transylvania, University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine, 400372 Cluj-Napoca, Romania
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Dipartimento di Chimica e Tecnologie del Farmaco, Università degli Studi di Roma “La Sapienza”, P.le Aldo Moro 5, 00185 Rome, Italy
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Department of Pharmacy, “G. d’Annunzio” University of Chieti–Pescara, Via dei Vestini 31, 66100 Chieti, Italy
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Department of Food Science, University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine, 400372 Cluj-Napoca, Romania
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Dipartimento di Sanità Pubblica e Malattie Infettive, Università degli Studi di Roma “La Sapienza” P.le Aldo Moro 5, 00185 Rome, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Antioxidants 2019, 8(11), 562; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox8110562
Received: 11 October 2019 / Revised: 31 October 2019 / Accepted: 7 November 2019 / Published: 16 November 2019
Goji berries are undoubtedly a source of potentially bioactive compounds but their phytochemical profile can vary depending on their geographical origin, cultivar, and/or industrial processing. A rapid and cheap extraction of the polyphenolic fraction from Lycium barbarum cultivars, applied after homogenization treatments, was combined with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analyses based on two different methods. The obtained hydroalcoholic extracts, containing interesting secondary metabolites (gallic acid, chlorogenic acid, catechin, sinapinic acid, rutin, and carvacrol), were also submitted to a wide biological screening. The total phenolic and flavonoid contents, the antioxidant capacity using three antioxidant assays, tyrosinase inhibition, and anti-Candida activity were evaluated in order to correlate the impact of the homogenization treatment, geographical origin, and cultivar type on the polyphenolic and flavonoid amount, and consequently the bioactivity. The rutin amount, considered as a quality marker for goji berries according to European Pharmacopeia, varied from ≈200 to ≈400 µg/g among the tested samples, showing important differences observed in relation to the influence of the evaluated parameters. View Full-Text
Keywords: goji berry; Lycium barbarum; HPLC-DAD; antioxidant capacity; TPC; TFC; anti-tyrosinase activity; anti-Candida activity goji berry; Lycium barbarum; HPLC-DAD; antioxidant capacity; TPC; TFC; anti-tyrosinase activity; anti-Candida activity
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MDPI and ACS Style

Mocan, A.; Cairone, F.; Locatelli, M.; Cacciagrano, F.; Carradori, S.; Vodnar, D.C.; Crișan, G.; Simonetti, G.; Cesa, S. Polyphenols from Lycium barbarum (Goji) Fruit European Cultivars at Different Maturation Steps: Extraction, HPLC-DAD Analyses, and Biological Evaluation. Antioxidants 2019, 8, 562.

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