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Open AccessArticle

Differentiation of Phenolic Composition Among Tunisian Thymus algeriensis Boiss. et Reut. (Lamiaceae) Populations: Correlation to Bioactive Activities

1
Laboratory of Plant Biotechnology, Department of Biology, National Institute of Applied Science and Technology, B.P. 676, Tunis CEDEX 1080, Tunisia
2
QOPNA & LAQV-REQUIMTE, Department of Chemistry, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro, Portugal
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Antioxidants 2019, 8(11), 515; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox8110515
Received: 1 October 2019 / Revised: 21 October 2019 / Accepted: 24 October 2019 / Published: 28 October 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Phenolic Profiling and Antioxidant Capacity in Plants)
Twelve Tunisian Thymus algeriensis populations growing wild in different bioclimatic zones, extending from the subhumid to the upper-arid bioclimates, were compared regarding their phenolic composition and their ability to serve as antioxidant, anti-acetylcholinesterase, and antibacterial agents. A significant variation of phenol profile was observed between the analyzed populations, as assessed by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with a diode array detector and an electrospray mass spectrometer (UHPLC-DAD-ESI/MSn) technique. Rosmarinic acid was the main phenolic compound in most populations (383.8–1157.8 µg/mL extract), but still, those from the upper-arid bioclimatic zone were distinguished by the presence of carvacrol (1374.7 and 2221.6 µg/mL extract), which was absent in the remaining ones. T. algeriensis methanolic extracts were found to possess a substantial antioxidant and anti-acetylcholinesterase activities, with significant variation observed between populations, which were correlated to their phenolic contents. The antibacterial activity of the extracts tested against seven bacteria was revealed only by populations collected from upper-arid bioclimate and mainly associated with the presence of carvacrol. Extracts revealed a bacteriostatic effect against all bacteria (MIC = 1.4 mg/mL). Yet, the bactericidal activity (MBC = 1.4mg/mL) was restricted to the gram-negative bacteria Escherchia coli. View Full-Text
Keywords: thyme; UHPLC-DAD-ESI/MSn; phenolic compounds; antioxidant activity; anti-acetylcholinesterase activity; antibacterial activity thyme; UHPLC-DAD-ESI/MSn; phenolic compounds; antioxidant activity; anti-acetylcholinesterase activity; antibacterial activity
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MDPI and ACS Style

Jaouadi, R.; Silva, A.M.S.; Boussaid, M.; Yahia, I.B.H.; Cardoso, S.M.; Zaouali, Y. Differentiation of Phenolic Composition Among Tunisian Thymus algeriensis Boiss. et Reut. (Lamiaceae) Populations: Correlation to Bioactive Activities. Antioxidants 2019, 8, 515.

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