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Open AccessArticle

Compositional Features and Bioactive Properties of Aloe vera Leaf (Fillet, Mucilage, and Rind) and Flower

1
Centro de Investigação de Montanha (CIMO), Instituto Politécnico de Bragança, Campus de Santa Apolónia, 5300-253 Bragança, Portugal
2
Department of Plant Physiology, Institute for Biological Research “Siniša Stanković”, University of Belgrade, Bulevar Despota Stefana 142, 11000 Belgrade, Serbia
3
QOPNA & LAQV-REQUIMTE, Department of Chemistry, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro, Portugal
4
Department of Pharmaceutical Botany, “Iuliu Hațieganu” University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Gheorghe Marinescu Street 23, 400337 Cluj-Napoca, Romania
5
Laboratory of Chromatography, Institute of Advanced Horticulture Research of Transylvania, University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine, 400372 Cluj-Napoca, Romania
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Antioxidants 2019, 8(10), 444; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox8100444
Received: 8 September 2019 / Revised: 26 September 2019 / Accepted: 27 September 2019 / Published: 1 October 2019
This work aimed to characterize compositional and bioactive features of Aloe vera leaf (fillet, mucilage, and rind) and flower. The edible fillet was analysed for its nutritional value, and all samples were studied for phenolic composition and antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, tyrosinase inhibition, and cytotoxic activities. Dietary fibre (mainly mannan) and available carbohydrates (mainly free glucose and fructose) were abundant macronutrients in fillet, which also contained high amounts of malic acid (5.75 g/100 g dw) and α-tocopherol (4.8 mg/100 g dw). The leaf samples presented similar phenolic profiles, with predominance of chromones and anthrones, and the highest contents were found in mucilage (131 mg/g) and rind (105 mg/g) extracts, which also revealed interesting antioxidant properties. On the other hand, the flower extract was rich in apigenin glycoside derivatives (4.48 mg/g), effective against Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MIC = 0.025 mg/mL and MBC = 0.05 mg/mL) and capable of inhibiting the tyrosinase activity (IC50 = 4.85 mg/mL). The fillet, rind, and flower extracts also showed a powerful antifungal activity against Aspergillus flavus, A. niger, Penicillium funiculosum, and Candida albicans, higher than that of ketoconazole. Thus, the studied Aloe vera samples displayed high potential to be exploited by the food or cosmetic industries, among others. View Full-Text
Keywords: Aloe barbadensis Mill.; nutritional composition; neutral sugars; phenolic compounds; organic acids; antioxidant capacity; antimicrobial activity; tyrosinase inhibitory activity; cytotoxicity Aloe barbadensis Mill.; nutritional composition; neutral sugars; phenolic compounds; organic acids; antioxidant capacity; antimicrobial activity; tyrosinase inhibitory activity; cytotoxicity
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MDPI and ACS Style

Añibarro-Ortega, M.; Pinela, J.; Barros, L.; Ćirić, A.; Silva, S.P.; Coelho, E.; Mocan, A.; Calhelha, R.C.; Soković, M.; Coimbra, M.A.; Ferreira, I.C.F.R. Compositional Features and Bioactive Properties of Aloe vera Leaf (Fillet, Mucilage, and Rind) and Flower. Antioxidants 2019, 8, 444.

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