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Chocolate Consumers and Lymphocyte-to-Monocyte Ratio: A Working Hypothesis from a Preliminary Report of a Pilot Study in Celiac Subjects

Research Centre for Food and Nutrition, Council for Agricultural Research and Economics (CREA-AN), 00178 Rome, Italy
Department of Chemistry and Technologies of Drug, Sapienza University of Rome, 00185 Rome, Italy
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Antioxidants 2019, 8(10), 440;
Received: 27 August 2019 / Revised: 23 September 2019 / Accepted: 27 September 2019 / Published: 1 October 2019
Background and aim: The aim of this work was to evaluate the relationship between platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) and lymphocyte-to-monocyte ratio (LMR) with habitual consumption of dark chocolate in a group of celiac subjects in which chocolate consumption and lower neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) association had already been observed. Additionally, due to the known anti-nutrient effect on iron absorption, we evaluated red blood cell count (RBC), mean corpuscular volume (MCV) and hemoglobin (Hb) values. Methods: Chocolate consumers and non-consumers were matched for sex, menopausal status, NLR values over the previously suggested cut off (2.32) for celiac patients, and co-morbidities. Results: Chocolate consumers had high LMR compared to non-consumers, whereas no differences were observed between chocolate consumers and non-consumers in RBC, MCV, Hb and PLR. However, similar number of subjects had PLR higher than the previously suggested cut off (143.7) for celiac disease. Conclusions: This preliminary report suggests a working hypothesis for larger studies aimed at establishing cut off values for LMR in celiac patients and the modulation of this marker by dietary antioxidants. View Full-Text
Keywords: inflammation; immunity; diet inflammation; immunity; diet
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Raguzzini, A.; Poce, G.; Consalvi, S.; Toti, E.; Palmacci, F.; Biava, M.; Peluso, I. Chocolate Consumers and Lymphocyte-to-Monocyte Ratio: A Working Hypothesis from a Preliminary Report of a Pilot Study in Celiac Subjects. Antioxidants 2019, 8, 440.

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