Next Article in Journal
Superoxide Dismutases in Pancreatic Cancer
Next Article in Special Issue
Interleukin-1β Protects Neurons against Oxidant-Induced Injury via the Promotion of Astrocyte Glutathione Production
Previous Article in Journal
Analysis and Comparison of the Antioxidant Component of Portulaca Oleracea Leaves Obtained by Different Solid-Liquid Extraction Techniques
Previous Article in Special Issue
Cysteine, Glutathione, and Thiol Redox Balance in Astrocytes
Open AccessReview

Are Astrocytes the Predominant Cell Type for Activation of Nrf2 in Aging and Neurodegeneration?

Department of Pathology, The University of Melbourne, Parkville, VIC 3010, Australia
Antioxidants 2017, 6(3), 65; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox6030065
Received: 13 June 2017 / Revised: 11 August 2017 / Accepted: 16 August 2017 / Published: 18 August 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Astrocyte Antioxidant Systems)
Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is a transcription factor that regulates hundreds of antioxidant genes, and is activated in response to oxidative stress. Given that many neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Huntington’s disease and multiple sclerosis are characterised by oxidative stress, Nrf2 is commonly activated in these diseases. Evidence demonstrates that Nrf2 activity is repressed in neurons in vitro, and only cultured astrocytes respond strongly to Nrf2 inducers, leading to the interpretation that Nrf2 signalling is largely restricted to astrocytes. However, Nrf2 activity can be observed in neurons in post-mortem brain tissue and animal models of disease. Thus this interpretation may be false, and a detailed analysis of the cell type expression of Nrf2 in neurodegenerative diseases is required. This review describes the evidence for Nrf2 activation in each cell type in prominent neurodegenerative diseases and normal aging in human brain and animal models of neurodegeneration, the response to pharmacological and genetic modulation of Nrf2, and clinical trials involving Nrf2-modifying drugs. View Full-Text
Keywords: astrocyte; neuron; microglia; oligodendrocyte; Keap1; mouse; electrophile; dimethyl fumarate; CuII(atsm); sulforaphane astrocyte; neuron; microglia; oligodendrocyte; Keap1; mouse; electrophile; dimethyl fumarate; CuII(atsm); sulforaphane
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Liddell, J.R. Are Astrocytes the Predominant Cell Type for Activation of Nrf2 in Aging and Neurodegeneration? Antioxidants 2017, 6, 65. https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox6030065

AMA Style

Liddell JR. Are Astrocytes the Predominant Cell Type for Activation of Nrf2 in Aging and Neurodegeneration? Antioxidants. 2017; 6(3):65. https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox6030065

Chicago/Turabian Style

Liddell, Jeffrey R. 2017. "Are Astrocytes the Predominant Cell Type for Activation of Nrf2 in Aging and Neurodegeneration?" Antioxidants 6, no. 3: 65. https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox6030065

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Search more from Scilit
 
Search
Back to TopTop