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Article

LC-MS/HRMS Analysis, Anti-Cancer, Anti-Enzymatic and Anti-Oxidant Effects of Boerhavia diffusa Extracts: A Potential Raw Material for Functional Applications

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Physiology and Biochemistry Research Laboratory, Department of Biology, Science Faculty, Selcuk University, Konya 42130, Turkey
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Department of Medical Biology, Faculty of Medicine, Kastamonu University, Kastamonu 37150, Turkey
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Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, King Khalid University, Abha 62529, Asir, Saudi Arabia
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Department of Genetics and Bioengineering, Faculty of Engineering and Architecture, Kastamonu University, Kastamonu 37150, Turkey
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Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Medical University-Sofia, 1431 Soifa, Bulgaria
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Department of Health Sciences, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Mauritius, Réduit 80837, Mauritius
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Laboratoire de Botanique, UFR Biosciences, Université Félix Houphouët-Boigny, Abidjan 00225, Côte d’Ivoire
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Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, University of Rajshahi, Rajshahi 6205, Bangladesh
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Department of Agricultural Sciences, University of Naples Federico II, 80055 Portici, Italy
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally as the first author.
Academic Editor: Cecilia Faraloni
Antioxidants 2021, 10(12), 2003; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox10122003
Received: 14 November 2021 / Revised: 4 December 2021 / Accepted: 10 December 2021 / Published: 16 December 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Compounds from Plants with Antioxidant Properties)
Boerhavia diffusa is a great tropical plant and is widely used for various traditional purposes. In the present study, we examined the influence of solvents (dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, methanol and infusion (water)) on chemical composition and biological capabilities of B. diffusa. An UHPLC-HRMS method was used to determine the chemical characterization. The biological ability was examined for antioxidant, enzyme inhibitory and anti-cancer effects. To evaluate antioxidant effects, different chemical methods (ABTS, DPPH, CUPRAC, FRAP, metal chelating and phosphomolybdenum) were applied. With regard to enzyme inhibitory properties, cholinesterases, amylase, glucosidase and tyrosinase were used. The MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell line was chosen to determine anticancer activity. Based on the UHPLC-HRMS analysis, 37 specialized metabolites were dereplicated and identified in the studied extracts. Results revealed the presence of 15 hydroxybenzoic, hydroxycinnamic, acylquinic acids, and their glycosides, one rotenoid, seven flavonoids, 12 fatty acids and two other glycosides. Among the tested extracts, the methanol extract showed a stronger antioxidant ability compared with other extracts. The methanol extract also showed the best inhibitory effects on tyrosinase and glucosidase. In the anti-cancer evaluation, the methanol extract showed stronger anticancer effects compared with water extract. In summary, our observations can contribute to the establishment of B. diffusa as a potential candidate for functional applications in the preparation. View Full-Text
Keywords: Boerhavia diffusa; antioxidant; enzyme inhibition; anti-cancer; flavonoids; functional applications Boerhavia diffusa; antioxidant; enzyme inhibition; anti-cancer; flavonoids; functional applications
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MDPI and ACS Style

Sinan, K.I.; Akpulat, U.; Aldahish, A.A.; Celik Altunoglu, Y.; Baloğlu, M.C.; Zheleva-Dimitrova, D.; Gevrenova, R.; Lobine, D.; Mahomoodally, M.F.; Etienne, O.K.; Zengin, G.; Mahmud, S.; Capasso, R. LC-MS/HRMS Analysis, Anti-Cancer, Anti-Enzymatic and Anti-Oxidant Effects of Boerhavia diffusa Extracts: A Potential Raw Material for Functional Applications. Antioxidants 2021, 10, 2003. https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox10122003

AMA Style

Sinan KI, Akpulat U, Aldahish AA, Celik Altunoglu Y, Baloğlu MC, Zheleva-Dimitrova D, Gevrenova R, Lobine D, Mahomoodally MF, Etienne OK, Zengin G, Mahmud S, Capasso R. LC-MS/HRMS Analysis, Anti-Cancer, Anti-Enzymatic and Anti-Oxidant Effects of Boerhavia diffusa Extracts: A Potential Raw Material for Functional Applications. Antioxidants. 2021; 10(12):2003. https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox10122003

Chicago/Turabian Style

Sinan, Kouadio Ibrahime, Uğur Akpulat, Afaf A. Aldahish, Yasemin Celik Altunoglu, Mehmet Cengiz Baloğlu, Dimitrina Zheleva-Dimitrova, Reneta Gevrenova, Devina Lobine, Mohamad Fawzi Mahomoodally, Ouattara Katinan Etienne, Gokhan Zengin, Shafi Mahmud, and Raffaele Capasso. 2021. "LC-MS/HRMS Analysis, Anti-Cancer, Anti-Enzymatic and Anti-Oxidant Effects of Boerhavia diffusa Extracts: A Potential Raw Material for Functional Applications" Antioxidants 10, no. 12: 2003. https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox10122003

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