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Open AccessArticle

Using Dual-Site Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation to Probe Connectivity between the Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex and Ipsilateral Primary Motor Cortex in Humans

1
Department of Kinesiology and Health Science, California State University Sacramento, Sacramento, California, CA 95819-6073, USA
2
Brain and Behavior Laboratory, School of Kinesiology University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, MI 48109-2214, USA
3
Division of Brain, Imaging and Behaviour—Systems Neuroscience, Krembil Brain Institute, Toronto, ON M5T 2S8, Canada
4
Division of Neurology, Department of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON M5G 2C4, Canada
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Brain Sci. 2019, 9(8), 177; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci9080177
Received: 22 June 2019 / Revised: 23 July 2019 / Accepted: 24 July 2019 / Published: 26 July 2019
(This article belongs to the Collection Collection on Cognitive Neuroscience)
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Abstract

Dual-site transcranial magnetic stimulation to the primary motor cortex (M1) and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) can be used to probe functional connectivity between these regions. The purpose of this study was to characterize the effect of DLPFC stimulation on ipsilateral M1 excitability while participants were at rest and contracting the left- and right-hand first dorsal interosseous muscle. Twelve participants were tested in two separate sessions at varying inter-stimulus intervals (ISI: 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 15, and 20 ms) at two different conditioning stimulus intensities (80% and 120% of resting motor threshold). No significant effect on ipsilateral M1 excitability was found when applying a conditioning stimulus over DLPFC at any specific inter-stimulus interval or intensity in either the left or right hemisphere. Our findings suggest neither causal inhibitory nor faciliatory influences of DLPFC on ipsilateral M1 activity while participants were at rest or when performing an isometric contraction in the target hand muscle. View Full-Text
Keywords: dorsolateral prefrontal cortex; primary motor cortex; transcranial magnetic stimulation; connectivity; motor control dorsolateral prefrontal cortex; primary motor cortex; transcranial magnetic stimulation; connectivity; motor control
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Brown, M.J.; Goldenkoff, E.R.; Chen, R.; Gunraj, C.; Vesia, M. Using Dual-Site Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation to Probe Connectivity between the Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex and Ipsilateral Primary Motor Cortex in Humans. Brain Sci. 2019, 9, 177.

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