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Open AccessArticle

Can Evaluative Conditioning Change Well-Established Attitudes Towards Popular Brands? Your Brain Says Yes Even Though Your Mouth Says No

School of Psychology, University of Newcastle, Newcastle, Callaghan NSW 2308, Australia
Department Marketing, Vienna University of Economics and Business, 1020 Vienna, Austria
CanBeLab, Department of Psychology, Webster Vienna Private University, 1020 Vienna, Austria
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Brain Sci. 2019, 9(5), 106;
Received: 1 March 2019 / Revised: 29 April 2019 / Accepted: 6 May 2019 / Published: 10 May 2019
(This article belongs to the Collection Collection on Cognitive Neuroscience)
In the present study, using both implicit and explicit measures, we addressed the issue of whether strongly developed relationships towards brands could be modified through the use of evaluative conditioning. Using an online survey, individual participant brand lists were created, and formed the basis of this experiment. Participants were then exposed to conditioning during a longitudinal study. Throughout the experiment, a combination of explicit and implicit measures was used to assess changes in attitude. Specifically, participants were asked to rate the brand names on a Likert-type scale. Simultaneously, changes in the brains electrical activity in response to the brands were recorded via electroencephalography (EEG). Upon completion of this task, participants underwent two Implicit Association Tests (IAT; one for liked brands and one for disliked brands). There were two main findings of this study. Firstly, no significant changes in attitude were observed via the use of explicit measures, and those that were found relating to the IAT were regarded as questionable. Secondly, EEG presented consistent results which showed that conditioning elicited changes in cortical activity towards both liked and disliked brands, which suggest it may be a useful tool in measuring the impact of evaluative conditioning that is not reflected in verbal responses. View Full-Text
Keywords: brand attitude; brain imaging; triangulation; neuroconsulting brand attitude; brain imaging; triangulation; neuroconsulting
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Bosshard, S.; Koller, M.; Walla, P. Can Evaluative Conditioning Change Well-Established Attitudes Towards Popular Brands? Your Brain Says Yes Even Though Your Mouth Says No. Brain Sci. 2019, 9, 106.

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